Flashcards in Chapter 26- The Cold War Deck (184)
In what year on April 25 did some 1,600 delegates and assistants from 50 nations gather in San Fransisco, California, to draft a charter for the United Nations?
On April 25, 1945, some 1,600 delegates and assistants from 50 nations gathered in _________________, California, to draft a charter for the United Nations.
Where did the first official meeting of the UN General Assembly take place on January 10, 1946?
What were the three major organs that the United Nations were made up of?
What was one of the three major organs of the United Nations that was compromising all member states?
What was one of the three major organs of the United Nations that was composed of five permanent members--the United States, Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and China--and ten selected members?
What was one of the three major organs of the United Nations that was made up of the secretary-general and his undersecretaries?
Who was the Soviet Agent who was present at Dumbarton Oaks and San Francisco who was the head of Communist Russia's delegation?
Who was an official at the U.S. State Department later implicated as a spy for the Soviet Union and was present at Dumbarton Oaks and San Francisco?
More concrete plans for a United Nations organization were drawn up at _______________, an estate near Washington, D.C., in the fall of 1944.
The guns had hardly fallen silent in 1945 when another global conflict developed, an ongoing _______________, a war fought not with military weapons but with words, diplomacy, and ideology.
Arrayed against each other in the Cold War were the ______________, led by the United States, and the "Communist bloc," dominated by the Soviet Union.
Arrayed against each other in the Cold War were the "free world," led by the United States, and the __________________, dominated by the Soviet Union.
Standing between the two antagonists of the Cold War (United Sates and Soviet Union), was the _______________, which included many of the emergency nations in Africa, Asia, and South America during the late 1940s and early 1950s?
Soviet aims throughout the Cold War included surrounding the Soviet Union with __________________ (nations supposedly independent but technically under the dominance of another) to be exploited for economic and military gain.
Who were the two American Communist spies who were convicted of treason in 1951 and executed in 1953 for passing vital information to Russian agents?
Who was the Communist spy who was the director of Britain's nuclear research program, who was convicted in 1950 for supplying Moscow with a top-secret trigger mechanism that would detonate the atomic bomb?
Who was the American Senator who exposed much Communist spy activity in the State Department, in the entertainment and intellectual community, and even in the Army?
Joseph P. McCarthy
The Communists established Soviet-dominated puppet governments called __________________ in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia.
The Communists established Soviet-dominated puppet governments called people's republics in:
Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia
What were the two countries that established independent Communist governments but maintained close ties to the Soviet Union?
The Soviet occupation zone of ______________ became the Communist-dominated German Democratic Republic in 1949.
By 1946, Winston Churchill could speak of an ________________ of tyranny and oppression having descended upon the nations of Eastern Europe.
To prevent Soviet expansion into Greece and Turkey, U.S. President Harry Truman announced a policy of ______________ in 1947, declaring that the United States would aid any free nation to resist Communist aggression, thus "containing" Communist expansion.
What was the policy that declared that the United States would aid any free nation to resist Communist aggression, thus using containment on Communist aggression, and provided $400 million in economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey, bolstering their resistance to Communism?
What was the European Recovery Program better known as the ________________, extended credits amounting to $20 billion over the next four years in the name of providing bulwark against further Communist expansion in Europe.
Although not originally part of the Marshall Plan, the areas of Germany under American, British, and French occupation were united in 1949 to form the free nation of:
When the Soviets established a blockade of all rail, water, and road routes in West Berlin, the Americans came to West Berlin's rescue by establishing the ___________________ all through the winter of 1948-1949 to save the 2 1/4 million West Berliners from starvation.
When the Soviets established a blockade of all rail, water, and road routes into West Berlin, the Americans came to West Berlin's rescue by establishing the Berlin Airlift all through the winter of what years?
In what year in April did the United States, Canada, and 10 Western European nations sign a defense pact, known as the North Atlantic Treaty?
The North Atlantic Treaty, signed in 1949, formed an association of countries, called the ___________________, and delineated a security area in the North Atlantic and in Western Europe.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Russia countered the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) by denouncing it as an "aggressive alliance," and by forming a "defensive" military alliance of its own in Eastern Europe, called the ________________, in 1955.
In 1958, Western Europe formed the Common Market, also called the:
European Economic Community
Who was the new leader of Russia in 1955, who denounced Stalin's gruesome tactics, although he had been one of Stalin's most important henchmen during Stalin's many purges, and he also called for "peaceful coexistence"?
The "de-Stalinization" of Russia gave the free world false hope that the danger of Communism had decreased as Khrushchev called for:
Who was the dictator of Yugoslavia who established his own brand of Communism outside the Soviet sphere of control in the late 1940s?
In August 1961, what wall did the Communists build between East and West Berlin to keep West Berliners from escaping to the West, was the symbol of Soviet oppression in Eastern Europe, and was the first time in history that a wall was built to keep people inside their own country rather than keeping enemies out?
In August what year was the Berlin Wall built?
Who was the chancellor of West Germany, was a traditional Roman Catholic and a staunch conservative politician who provided the leadership necessary for West Germany to recover from its wartime defeat, and promptly moved his nation toward a vigorous free market economy, transforming West Germany into one if the most prosperous nations in the world?
Who were the three conservative prime ministers of Great Britain who improved British industry and defense during the 1950s and early 1960s?
What was established in Britain prior to World War II because one of Britain's major concerns was the dissolution of the once-mighty Empire, and following the war, several of Britain's colonies and possessions looked to become independent of British control?
British Commonwealth of Nations
Who was the leader of the Free French government during World War II, and returned to power and helped write a new constitution, establishing the Fifth Republic, and was elected president of the Fifth Republic?
Charles de Gaulle
After De Gaulle's death in 1970, France moved back toward socialism, and in 1981, ___________________ of the Socialist Party became president of France, but later had no choice but to implement free enterprise forms.
After World War II, Italy began a slow recovery under the leadership of conservative statesman ________________, and after he died, Italy had over 30 coalition governments.
Alcide De Gasperi
Some Communists in Italy organized terrorist ________________, which kidnapped and murdered Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978.
When Franco, ruler of Spain, died in 1975, his successor, Prince _________________, encouraged moderation and democratic rule during periods of unrest.
About a decade after China became a republic in 1911, Communist forces tried to take control of its government, but China's ________________ government was able to prevent a Communist takeover.
Who was the Chinese Christian statesman fighting against the Communists in 1927?
Who was the Chinese Communist leader fighting against Christian statesman Chiang Kai-shek in 1927?
In December 1945, U.S. General ___________________ traveled to China as a special envoy to arrange peace between the Nationalists and Communists, but was unable to bring about any lasting government, and imposed an arms embargo on the Nationalists, sealing their doom.
George C. Marshall
In 1949, Chiang Kai-shek and about 2 million Nationalist soldiers with their families were forced to flee to the tiny Chinese island of ________________ (Formosa).
On October 1, 1949, Mao Tse-tung, the Chinese Communist leader, proclaimed the establishment of the ____________________. The world's most populous nation had been overrun by Communism.
People's Republic of China
In what year on October 1 did Mao Tse-tung, leader of the Chinese Communists, proclaim the establishment of the People's Republic of China?
With China reeling from the devastating blow of the agricultural productivity plummeting, Mao Tse-tung launched his first _________________ in 1953, and as a result, China's industrial output increased at the rapid rate of about 15 percent a year from 1953 to 1957, but the cost in human lives was staggering.
In 1958, Mao Tse-tung inaugurated China's second Five-Year Plan which he called the __________________, but proved to be a colossal failure.
"Great Leap Forward"
In 1966, Mao Tse-tung decided to launch a full-scale _________________ to purge China of all "counter revolutionaries" and foreign influences.
Encouraged by the Communist Party with the Cultural Revolution, students and young people formed gangs called ______________, which filled China's city streets with noisy demonstrations, marches, and protests, and attacked Chinese intellectuals and professionals.
Conservative estimates place the death toll of Mao Tse-tung's reign of terror at about how many people, making it the worst massacre in history?
40 million people
After Mao Tse-tung's death, by 1980, ________________ emerged as Communist China's most powerful leader, and China remained in the cruel clutches of Communist oppression.
After World War II in North Korea, the Soviets refused to permit free elections in North Korea and instead set up a Communist puppet regime under who?
Kim Il Sung
After World War II in South Korea, the Americans allowed the people to hold free elections and choose representatives to a national assembly, which drafted a constitution and elected __________________ as the first president of the Republic of Korea in 1948.
To separate governments of North Korea and South Korea now existed on the Korean Peninsula, and the country was divided along the:
In what year on June 25 did North Korean troops invade South Korea, beginning the Korean War?
On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops blasted their way across the 38th Parallel and invaded South Korea, beginning the:
President Truman took the matter of North Korea invading to the United States General Assembly and ordered the World War II hero ______________________ to dispatch troops to Korea from Japan. President Truman then named him supreme commander of all United States and United Nations forces.
General Douglas MacArthur
The North Koreans invading became critical for the future of a free South Korea as the outmanned and outgunned Americans and South Koreans were forced to retreat to a battle line in the southeastern corner of Korea, the ________________. At this crucial juncture, Chiang Kai-sheck, leader of the Chinese Nationalists, offered to send 33,000 troops to help the besieged MacArthur, but President Truman refused.
Ordering his troops to keep the enemy occupied at Pusan, General MacArthur surprised the world by landing American forces at _________________, near Seoul, and far to the northwest of the Pusan Perimeter; "experts" had declared that high tides and dangerous shoals made an amphibious land at this area impossible.
President Truman shocked America by abruptly removing ___________________ from command on April 11, 1951, replacing him with General Matthew B. Ridgeway, because he protested that Washington's policies were handcuffing U.S. military efforts for victory in Korea.
General Douglas MacArthur
What was President Truman's policy of refusing to use all available military strength to win a complete victory which doomed the American forces to a war of attrition against the masses of Red Chinese and North Korean troops amid the hills and ridges of Korea?
The Soviet Union's deadlock was broken in what year when Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin died and the Soviet leaders began to speak of "peace"?
Since 1934, Cuba had been ruled by dictator _________________, and under his rule, Cuba prospered economically because of close ties to the United States, but Kant Cubans still lived in poverty.
Who was the young Cuban lawyer with a record of of violence and revolutionary activity who attempted to start a revolution against the Batista government on July 26, 1953?
After Fidel Castro's release from prison two years after being captured because of the revolution he wanted to start, he went to Mexico, where he organized the ___________________, named after his aborted attempt to seize the Cuban government in 1953.
"26th of July Movement"
Upon assuming the duties of Chief Executive in 1961, U.S. President ________________ was informed of a plan for a force of Cuban exiles to initiate an anti-Castro revolution by invading Cuba, and the President allowed the plan to proceed.
John F. Kennedy
On April 17, 1961, an American-trained force of some 1,600 exiled Cuban freedom fighters invaded Cuba at the _______________. But despite the promises of American aid, President Kennedy cancelled air support vital to the operation's success, and the invasion was brutally crushed.
Bay of Pigs
As Soviet ships carried additional weapons to Cuba, the world anxiously stood on the brink of war, but on October 28, President Kennedy and Soviet Premier Khrushchev agreed to end the:
"Cuban Missile Crisis"
Cuban aid in what what country enabled a group of Communist revolutionaries called Sandinistas to oust President Anastasio Somoza in 1979?
Cuban aid in Nicaragua enabled a group of Communist revolutionaries called the __________________ to oust President Anastasio Somoza in 1979.
Cuban aid in Nicaragua enabled a group of Communist revolutionaries called the Sandanistas to oust President Anastasio ______________ in 1979.
In the early 1940s, Argentina had a prospering economy. In 1943, Colonel _________________ led a successful military overthrow of the government, and pursued a socialist program and nationalized many businesses.
Who was Juan Perón's third wife who succeeded her husband when he died in 1947, and became the first woman to head a government in the Western Hemisphere?
Who was chosen to be president in 1970 in Chile, was pro-Soviet, and immediately established diplomatic relations with Cuba and Communist China?
When Salvador Allende, president of Chile, committed suicide, who was the leader of the coup who assumed the office of president and broke off relations with Cuba and made efforts to let free market economic forces work?
The discovery in Mexico of vast quantities of _____________ in the late 1970s greatly increased Mexico's economic potential; by 1981, Mexico had risen to fourth place among the oil-producing nations of the world.
Preparation for independence in the Middle East began with ______________ when it became a republic in 1922.
When Turkey became a republic in 1922, the Turkish provinces were divided into five states, with Britain gaining control over the affairs of what three states and France gaining control over what two states?
Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq- Britain
Lebanon and Syria- France
The Middle East plays a vital part in world affairs today primarily because of what two reasons?
Much of the world's known oil reserves are located there.
The conflict between the Arabs and the Jews.
What are the two most important modern trends in the Middle East have been the:
Reawakening of Arab nationalism since the beginning of a World War I.
The emergence of the Jewish state if Israel in 1948.
In 1917, the British government issued the ___________________, which supported a national Jewish homeland in Palestine for the Jewish Zionists in Europe.
In 1917, the British government issued the Balfour Declaration, which supported a national Jewish homeland in Palestine for the Jewish _________________, those who advocated a Jewish national state, in Europe.
What is the exact date that the Jews proclaimed the independent state of Israel?
May 14, 1948
On May 14, 1948, the Jews proclaimed the independent:
State of Israel
Who was the Russian-born Jewish chemist who became the first president of Israel in 1949?
Who became Israel's first prime minister in 1949?
In 1973, because Egypt and Syria attacked Israel at the time of the Jewish highest holy day, the conflict became known as the:
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War reactivated ____________ (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), formed in 1960 as a monopoly designed to control the supply and price of oil.
Who was the Israeli Prime Minister who shocked the world when he met the Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat and U.S. President Jimmy Carter at Camp David in late 1978, in the United States to discuss a peaceful settlement of Israeli-Egyptian disputes?
Who was the Egyptian President who shocked the world when he met Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and U.S. President Jimmy Carter in late 1978 at Camp David in the United States to discuss a peaceful settlement of Israeli-Egyptian disputes?
In late 1978, for the first time in over 2,000 years, Jews and Arabs sat down together and negotiated a peace treaty. In the resulting _____________________, Israel agreed to withdraw completely from the Sinai Peninsula, which it did between 1979 and 1982.
Camp David Accords
Lebanon became an enclave for the terrorist _______________ under Yassir Arafat. And in 1969, began making raids against targets in Israel.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
Lebanon became an enclave for the terrorist Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) under _________________, whose goal was to establish a Palestinian state in Israel through force and terror.
Who was Iran's anti-Communist ruler, also called the Shah, and had been a staunch ally of the United States since the post-World War II period and was overthrown in 1979?
Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi
What was Iran's anti-Communist ruler, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi, also called?
On November 3, 1979, Iranian rebels under the Ayatolla ____________________, Iran's new totalitarian Muslim leader, captured the U.S. embassy in Tehran, the Iranian capital, and took 63 Americans hostage.
Who became the dictator of Iraq in 1979, was a member of the Sunni Muslim sect that opposed the Shi'tes, and used religion only as a political tool?
Who were the two leaders in the struggle for Indian independence who advocated civil disobedience against the British government of India as a means of achieving their goals?
In what year did India receive its independence, and Nehru became its first prime minister of India?
Who was Nehru's daughter who was prime minister from 1966 to 1977 and 1980 until her assassination in 1984?
Who was Indira Gandhi's son who succeeded her after her assassination, who remained prime minister until 1989, when he was removed from office on charges of corruption, and then attempted to return to power in 1991, but was assassinated?
What nation became the first African nation south of the Sahara to gain independence in 1957?
Who was the prime minister of Ghana who quickly became the idol of African nationalists, and his government was held up as the model of emerging democracy?
In 1960, the Belgian Congo became the independent:
Republic of the Congo
In 1960, the Belgian Congo became the independent Republic of the Congo; civil war broke out among the various factions, and the Soviet Union sent "technical assistants" and supplies to aid the pro-Communist Premier:
When two thousand Americans and Europeans were taken hostage in 1964 in Stanleyville, U.S. Air Force planes dropped 600 Belgian paratroopers into Stanleyville to rescue the hostages. Minutes before the paratroopers landed, 29 hostages were murdered, including _____________, an American medical missionary.
Dr. Paul Carlson
In 1965, Joseph Mobutu became the dictator of the Republic of Congo, and in 1971, the nation was renamed:
What nation declared independence in 1967?
What were the two oldestAfrican independent states?
In 1979, Libyan dictator ______________ helped support General Idi Amin, who seized power in Uganda and ruled until 1979.
In 1979, Libyan dictator Muammar al-Qaddafi helped support General ____________ who seized power in Uganda and ruled until 1979, claimed to be a devout Muslim, and killed and tortured as many as 300,000 people.
In 1969, Libyan dictator Muammar al-Qaddafi helped support General Idi Amin, who seized power in ______________ and ruled until 1979.
Who was the last descendant of King Solomon monarch in Ethiopia, and under his leadership, the Ethiopians had by 1970 a written constitution, a parliament, and a court system; and programs were in motion to improve transportation, education, and agriculture?
Haile Selassie I
What was South Africa's policy of racial segregation called?
Within South Africa itself, Marxist agitators infiltrated such black nationalist groups as the ___________________ and the Pan-African Congress, and fanned the flames of revolution.
African National Congress (ANC)
Vietnam conflict began in 1930 when Vietnamese Communist _______________ formed the Indochinese Communist Party intending to control all of Indiochina.
Ho Chi Minh
In the Indochina War, what were Vietnamese Communist Ho Chi Minh's forces called that defeated the elite French Foreign Legion soldiers and paratroopers, driving the French to the conference table?
Who became president of South Vietnam in the Geneva Accords, leaving Ho Chi Minh as continued dictator of North Vietnam?
Ngo Dinh Diem
The conflict between North and South Vietnam resumed in 1957 when Communist guerrillas called _______________, aided by North Vietnamese regular troops, began a campaign of terrorism in the villages of South Vietnam.
What country in 1960 became the scene of Communist aggression when the Vietminh-backed Pathet Lao staged a rebellion against this country's government and fought a civil war with government troops?
What country was dragged into the Vietnam War in the late 1960s when the North Vietnamese began using the country as a base for attacks upon South Vietnam?
In 1970, American and South Vietnamese forces invaded Cambodia to cut the ___________________, a North Vietnamese invasion route and supply trail, and to destroy North Vietnamese supply depots in Cambodia.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
Passed by Congress in August 1964, the ____________________ provided the legal justification for U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam conflict (technically, it was not a war because war was never declared).
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
In what year on March 6 did President Johnson send the first American combat troops--U.S. Marines--to South Vietnam to protect American bases there, and in July he ordered a general buildup of U.S. troops in South Vietnam?
In July of 1965, President Johnson ordered a general buildup of U.S. troops in South Vietnam under the command of General:
William C. Westmoreland
On January 30, 1968, the North Vietnamese launched the all-out _________________, a large-scale attack against 30 South Vietnamese cities and several U.S. military installations.
In June, 1969, President Nixon began gradually withdrawing U.S. troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese forces in the policy of:
A cease-fire agreement for the Vietnam War was finally signed at Paris in what year on January 27?
In what year on April 30 did the city of Saigon in South Vietnam fall to the North Vietnamese?
On April 30, 1975, the city of Saigon in South Vietnam fell to the North Vietnamese and the Communist flag soon flew over all of Vietnam, and Saigon was renamed:
Ho Chi Minh City
What countries were involved in the Vietnam War?
Who was the Hungarian-born American physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project and planned for the hydrogen bomb to counterbalance the Soviet nuclear threat in 1949, and is known as the "Father of the Hydrogen Bomb"?
Edward Teller plan for a more powerful nuclear weapon called the _________________ to counterbalance the Soviet nuclear threat in 1949.
Edward Teller, known as the "Father of the Hydrogen Bomb," faced intense opposition from the pro-Communist top consultant to the U.S. atomic energy commission, __________________, who had also helped develop The atomic bomb and now expressed "humanitarian "concern at the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
By 1980, the Soviets had so many more lethal weapons then United States that the threat of Soviet ________________ was a real possibility.
From nuclear hysteria emerged the so-called ___________________, where advocates demanded that America's nuclear arsenal be "frozen" at current levels with no new or improved weaponry, hoping that the Soviet Union would reciprocate.
With the concern over the nuclear arms race, the West began to pursue a policy of _____________________ with the Communists. Which is the idea of reducing tension or hostility between nations.
In 1971, President Nixon and his assistant for national security affairs, named __________________, ended American opposition to Communist China's membership in the United Nations.
Who succeeded Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev in 1964, and continued the policy of "peaceful coexistence" and used the West's desire for détente to his advantage?
In 1975, the members of the free world signed the ___________________ with the Communist bloc, promising greater "economic cooperation" and "cultural exchanges" between the West and the East.
In 1975, the famous Russian writer ____________________, who had been imprisoned in the Soviet Union for exposing the cruelties of Communism in his novels and essays, was exiled to the West.
In 1957, the free world became extremely apprehensive about its defense capabilities when the Soviet Union launched _______________, the world's first man-made satellite.
Who was the Russian cosmonaut who became the first man in space, making a single orbit of the earth in 1961?
In what year on July 20 did Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong become the first man to step onto the surface of the moon?
Who was the Apollo 11 astronaut who became the first man to step onto the surface of the moon on July 20, 1969?
In 1972, the United States the Soviet Union agreed to the ____________________ limiting the production of nuclear arms.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Treaty (SALT I)
One of the most brutal wars of liberation resulted after the Soviet ___________________ in 1979. The free world realize that appeasement of Communist aggression had earned nothing but failure and weakened resolve to continue fighting Communism.
Invasion of Afghanistan
Who became Britain's first woman prime minister in 1979?
Who became President of the United States in 1980, and his rhetoric inspired many, particularly his emphasis that (1) budgets should be balanced and (2) trade and business should be free from government interference?
Prime minister thatcher of Great Britain determined to rebuild her country's defenses and still a renewed sense of national pride, especially in the armed forces. The first major test of this policy occurred in April 1982, when Argentina invaded the _________________, which lie 400 miles off the coast of Argentina.
What war in 1982 was the most extensive naval conflict since World War II, where British strategic bombers made the longest bombing mission in the history of warfare I flying all the way from England to bomb the Falklands and returning to England?
President Reagan issued the ________________, which was an offensive policy of preemptive strikes to stop Communism before it could enslave a nation.
Soviet union underestimated the resolve of Ronald Reagan. This was evident when Reagan upheld the Reagan doctrine by sending troops to ___________________, where U.S. troops rounded up the Cuban forces and send them back to Cuba.
Ronald Ragan faced Communist aggression in Nicaragua by arming the _______________, freedom fighters against the Sandinistas and sent advisors to El Salvador to prevent a Communist takeover.
Soviet atrocities were thrust onto the world stage in September 1983, when Soviet fighter jets shot down flight _______________ leaving Alaska for South Korea.
A Communist tragedy took place in 1986 at a nuclear reactor plant in _________________, located in Soviet Ukraine. When a reactor meltdown killed 23 people, contaminated the large region of farmland surrounding the plant, and spewed a cloud of radioactive dust and debris into the atmosphere.
President Reagan's response to the increased Soviet military threat culminated in his endorsement of the ___________________, which is a system of space-age weaponry designed to destroy enemy inter-continental ballistic missiles in flight.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
In the 1980s, a movement of Polish nationalists calling themselves _______________, led by Lech Walesa, stood up to the Soviets, refusing to work until their demands for more freedom were met.
In the 1980s, a movement of Polish nationalists calling themselves Solidarity led by __________________, stood up to the Soviets, refusing to work until their demands for more freedom were met.
Who came to power as the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985, and met with President Reagan in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1985, and later in Iceland, to discuss a mutual limitation of nuclear arms?
Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet Union, and President Reagan met in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1985, and later in Iceland, to discuss a mutual limitation of nuclear arms. As a result of these meetings, they signed the ___________________ in 1987, agreeing to remove their medium-range missiles from Europe.
Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty
The United States and other free nations promised to help the Soviet Union rebuild its economic and political system on a democratic, free enterprise model--a plan the Soviets called _________________ which means "restructuring."
The Communists in the a Soviet Union adopted a foreign policy known as ________________, which means "openness," claiming that they wanted world peace and had no more plans for conquest.
By what year did the Communists begin to lose control of Eastern Europe?
Around 1989, the people of what nation closely monitored events in Poland, where the Solidarity movement was again on the rise?
When free elections in ______________ brought Solidarity to power in this nation's parliament, and the Soviet troops did nothing, the Hungarians began to tear down the fences and dismantle the mine fields that separated them from Austria.
By September 1989, thousands of _________________ were fleeing Communist oppression, reaching West Germany by way of sympathetic supporters in Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
Encouraged by events in East Germany, 500,000 _______________ took to the streets of Prague in late 1989, demonstrating for free elections and the end of Communist rule?
Into what two independent countries did Czechoslovakia split into in 1993?
Czech Republic and Slovakia
While Communist rule collapsed in Czechoslovakia, the very symbol of the Communist enslavement of Eastern Europe came tumbling down. What was this symbol that was opened on November 9, 1989?
In what year on October 3, were East and West Germany officially reunited?
In December 1989, Communism was overthrown in Romania, resulting in the execution of the cruel dictator ________________ and his wife.
In the spring of 1989 in China, a million university students and workers gathered in Beijing's _________________ in a great demonstration for freedom.
In Moscow, the President of the Russian Republic, ____________________, led resistance against the coup. He took refuge in the Russian parliament building and surrounded himself with loyal military men.
By the December of what year did most of the former Soviet republics had banded together to form the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and the Soviet Union had ceased to exist as a nation?