Flashcards in Chapter 13-The Rise Of Modern Nations Deck (164)
Among the earliest known inhabitants of the British Isles were the _______, the barbaric descendants of people from the European mainland.
What was th special group of Celtic men who acted as teachers, judges, and priests and conducted religious ceremonies which included human sacrifice?
What is the mysterious monument that still stands in southern England and may have been an ancient Celtic worship site and observatory?
What were the three groups of Germanic tribes that began to arrive in Britain in the 5th century A.D. and left everything in ruins?
What legendary king is one of the Celtic heroes that is remembered in poetry and prose
The Angels gave their name to the southern part of Britain- "Angleland", or:
Who were the poets who renowned the early Saxons and devised long poems about war heroes and chanted them to their tribal chiefs for entertainment?
What is the greatest Saxon poem that still remains?
Who was the missionary appointed by Pope Gregory I in 596 and began the enormous task of converting the Anglo-Saxobs to Roman Catholicism?
Augustine the missionary eventually became the first ____________, the most influential church office in England?
archbishop of Canterbury
In what year did all of England officially accept Romanism?
In the mid-800s, a group of Vikings called the _______ began to invade England.
By 870, the Danes controlled most of England outside of _________, the leading Saxon kingdom.
In a treaty with the Vikings, King Alfred the Great confined the Danes to the northeastern portion of England, an area called the:
Who was the first great king of England and was named this for his accomplishments, and helped in many ways to make England a nation-state?
Alfred the Great
King Alfred the Great made Englishman aware of their common history through a running account of current events, the ____________, which continued to be written for hundreds of years.
In 886, King Alfred the Great occupied ________, an important town located on the Thames River in southeastern Britain.
Under less competent leadership, England fell to new Viking leaders, and in 1016, __________, who ruled England, Denmark, and Norway as a great empire, became king.
Canute the Dane
What were the four countries that became most evident to that circumstances tended toward unity?
Who was the Saxon king who returned to the throne in 1042 with the help of the English nobles?
Edward the Confessor
When Edward the Confessor died, William, duke of Normandy, stepped forward to claim the throne. Ignoring William's claims, the English nobles made the most powerful among them, __________, king.
William, duke of Normandy, decided to settle the issue of who would be king in battle and sailed with an army of 10,000 or more men to England, where he met Harold's forces at the __________ on October 14, 1066.
Battle of Hastings
In what year did the Battle of Hastings take place?
When William, duke of Normandy, defeated Harold Godwin, he baca me known as:
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror's victory at the Battle of Hastings was known as the:
King William directed his assistants to take a ____________ (a count of the people and property) to inventory his "property".
The results of King William's census were entered in the:
King William abolished the _________, the old assembly of nobles, and replaced it with the Great Council.
King William abolished the Witan, and replaced it with the __________, a body composed only of chief vassals.
The most important Norman king after William the Conqueror was his son, _________, whose reign was characterized by his wisdom and fairness.
After coming to the throne, King Henry issued his ____________, promising to end heavy taxation of the nobles and the church and not to abuse his power as king.
"Charter of Liberties"
Along with the "Charter of Liberties," King Henry also established the __________, a group of nobles and administrators who looked after the government's finances and acted as judges over revenue matters.
In 1154, the Norman dynasty ended when _________, the grandson of Henry I, became king and initiated Plantagenet line of kings.
Henry II initiated the __________ line of kings.
It was during Henry II's reign that the _________ (laws common to all English men) began to develop from case-by-case decision of judges based upon long-accepted customs.
Henry II established ___________, which was a group of people called to give a verdict, or true statement, in regard to a legal matter.
trial by jury
When Henry II died, he was succeeded by his son __________; an English king who loved crusades and combat, earning the name "Lion-Hearted" from his exploits.
While Richard I would be out fighting in crusades, ___________, Richard's mother, maintained the realm, aided by the stable government and justice system that her husband Henry II had established, and was the only person to be royalty in both France and England.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Upon Richard's death, his brother ________ became king. Already well-known for his treachery, selfishness, and cruelty, he succeeded in becoming the most hated king in English history.
King _________ of France used John's bad behavior as an excuse to declare that the English king had broken the promises of a vassal, then took more than half of the English possessions in mainland Europe.
On June 15th, _______, a group of English and Danish noblemen and clergy met King John at the meadow of Runnymede, where they presented him with the Magna Carta.
On June 15th, 1215, a group of English and Danish noblemen and clergy met King John at the meadow of ___________, near London, where they presented him with the Magna Carta.
On June 15th, 1215, a group of English and Danish noblemen and clergy met King John at the meadow of Runnymede, near London, where they presented him with one of the most important documents in the history of the world-the ________, where the ancient rights and privileges of the people were clearly defined.
What was the right of an arrested person to appear before a court to determine if his imprisonment is legal?
What is a written plan which sets up a form of government and establishes its basic governing principles?
The Magna Carta would become an important part of English __________ (rules for exercise and restraint of governmental power).
Who was King John's son who became king in 1216, was a weak king that made many mistakes, increased taxes, and treated his foreign friends and relatives better than he did Englishmen?
Who was the leader of the rebelling nobles who took control of the government and called what is remembered as the first meeting of Parliament in 1265?
Simon de Montfort
Simon de Montfort took control of the government and called what is remembered as the first meeting of Parliament in:
Henry III's son ___________ came to the throne in 1272, was nicknamed "Longshanks" for his long legs, and was the first pure Englishman to sit on the throne since the Norman Conquest.
Beginning with Edward's ____________ of 1295, representative government became a regular feature of the English government.
Members of Parliament stated their wishes in precise petitions called _______, which they presented to the king for his enactment before they would agree to new taxes.
Edward I's son, _________, became king and the nation suffered as a small group of selfish men manipulated this weak king.
Parliament forced Edward II to abdicate and set up his young son _________ as king in 1327, and divided Parliament into two institutions.
Under King Edward III, in Parliament, the great nobles and high church leaders began to sit apart as the:
House of Lords
Under King Edward III, in Parliament, the representatives came together as the ___________, which eventually represented the entire English nation.
House of Commons
For over a thousand years, the Celtic tribes of _________ maintained a constant struggle with successive invaders and conquerors of England.
When Edward I came to the English throne, ____________, refused to render homage to the new king; war then followed and he was killed. And in honor of this Welsh chieftain, his title was used ever since to the heir of the throne.
Llewellyn the Prince of Wales
Edward I also brought _________ into his kingdom in 1296, but the people loved their ancient liberties too well to submit quietly to the loss of their national independence.
Under the inspiration and leadership of the famous _____________, an outlaw knight, all the Lowlands, especially the peasantry, were soon in determined revolt.
Sir William Wallace
Whose tragic death lifted him to the place he has held ever since as the national hero of Scotland?
Sir William Wallace
Sir William Wallace's struggle with the Scottish was soon renewed by the equally renowned ____________, who represented the Scottish nobles, as Wallace had the common people.
Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce and Edward II fought the great _____________ in 1314; Edward's army was nearly annihilated in the most appalling disaster that an English army had suffered since the Norman Conquest.
Battle of Bannockburn
Under Edward III, England clashed with France in what became known as the:
Hundred Years' War
From what years did the Hundred Years' War last?
England won several famous battles in the Hundred Years' War fought on French soil- at what three places?
Who was the peasant girl who claimed to hear "heavenly voices" and led the French into battle and won a few victories, then was captured by the English and executed?
Joan of Arc
After the Hundred Years' War, England lost except the port of:
Who won the Hundred Years' War?
Who was the last Plantagenet king who lost the throne during the Hundred Years' War?
Who took the place of King Richard II, and began the dynasty of the House of Lancaster?
Henry IV took the place of King Richard II, and what dynasty began?
House of Lancaster
What noble family claimed the throne and ensued civil war when the last Lancastrian king, Henry VI, went insane?
House of York
In what year did the Yorks and Lancasters begin the Wars of the Roses?
In 1455 the Yorks and Lancasters began the:
Wars of the Roses
In 1461, the duke of York became King ___________, but the fighting of the Wars of the Roses still continued.
When did the Wars of the Roses finally end?
In 1485, the Wars of the Roses finally ended with the _____________, when Henry Tudor defeated the last York ruler and became the first Tudor king of England.
Battle of Bosworth Field
In 1485, the Wars of the Roses finally ended with the Battle of Bosworth Field, when Henry Tudor defeated the last York ruler and became _________, the first Tudor king of England.
Who won the Wars of the Roses between the Yorks and the Lancasters?
After the Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne's empire in 843, _______ (named for the Franks) began to develop as an individual kingdom.
In what year did the last Carolingian king of France die and Hugh Capet became king?
Following the death of the last Carolingian king of France in 987, the French nobles chose who to be king?
The coronation of Hugh Capet began what line of kings that is often marked as the beginning of the modern French nation?
Although Hugh Capet was supposedly the king of France, he actually controlled only a tiny patch of land called the _________, which was his own feudal domain, centered in Paris.
Hugh Capet controlled a tiny patch of land called the Ile-de-France, his own feudal domain, centered on:
By the reign of ________, the Caprtians were ready to challenge the nobles' power.
What French king made the French monarchy stronger than any other single noble in France?
Phillip II's grandson __________ continued the trends if his grandfather and became one of France's most memorable kings.
The inevitable conflict climaxed when _______ began to quarrel with Pope Boniface VIII over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent.
The inevitable conflict climaxed when Philip IV began to quarrel with Pope _________ over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent.
It was during Philip's conflict with Pope Boniface over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent that the _________, the French version of Parliament, was called. These people simply agreed to what the kings proposed.
The last Capetian died in 1328, and the French ___________ claimed the throne of France.
House of Valois
Spain and Portugal are located in southwestern Europe on the ___________, which is named for its earliest known inhabitants.
The Phoenicians founded the city of ________, in Spain, in which became a large, prosperous city in the ancient world and still exists today.
The Romans called the Iberian Peninsula:
Hispania or Spain
In what year did the Muslim Moors from North Africa crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and invaded Spain, conquered the Visigoths, but were defeated by Charles Martel at Tours?
What group of Muslims from North Africa invaded Spain, conquered the Visigoths, but were defeated by Charles Martel at Tours?
What city was the great center of Moorish culture, and Spain's capital at the time, and thrived with a population of nearly half a million people?
The Moors constructed many beautiful mosques in Spain and fortified palaces known as alcazars, the most famous of which is the _____________ in Granada.
In the 11th century, many small kingdoms of northern Spain began to wage their own crusade, the ____________, to take back Spain from the Moors.
What kingdom of the Reconquista crusade became the most powerful and led the other kingdoms in conquering the northern half of Spain?
Who was the Spanish national hero who fought against the Muslims and capture the city of Valencia during the time of the Reconquista crusade?
Because of the Reconquista crusade, the Moors were driven to ________ in southern Spain.
By the 1400s, Castile controlled most of Spain, and the kingdom of ___________ ruled the eastern part of the peninsula.
What Prince of Aragon married Princess Isabella of Castile in 1569, uniting the two chief kingdoms of Spain?
What princess of Castile married Prince Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469, uniting the two chief kingdoms of Spain?
In what year did the Moors in Granada surrender to Spain, bringing all of Spain under the rule of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella?
In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain dispatched the Italian navigator _______________ to find a new route to the East Indies; his discovery of the New World inaugurated Spain's "golden country."
In 1492, _____________, a brilliant Spanish scholar, wrote a grammar book for the Castilian's language that became the basis for the modern Spanish tongue.
Antonio de Nebrija
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella began the infamous ______________ to root up and destroy all "heretics" in Spain.
The name of Tomás de ___________, the first Grand Inquisitors of the Spanish Inquisition, became synonymous with cruelty and torture.
Some of the Phoenicians and Greeks who came to the Iberian Peninsula settled in what is today:
When the Romans conquered Spain, they also conquered Portugal, which they called:
Under Henry of Burgundy's son, __________, Portugal became an independent nation, and was crowned as the first king of Portugal in 1139.
Alfonso Henriques made what city his capital?
Who became king of Portugal in 1385, and his reign marked the beginning of Portugal's greatest days of glory?
Modern European civilization, sometimes called ____________, has so profoundly influenced the world that the Modern age is sometimes called the "European Age."
The spread of European influence across the globe began with the ________________, when the nations of Europe began in earnest to explore distant lands across uncharted seas.
Age of Exploration
Some historians believe that a Viking adventurer named ________________ sailed to America around A.D. 1000, but Viking activity in the New World remained unknown to most Europeans and had no lasting consequences.
What is the East also referred to?
The Renaissance produced the ____________, a device used to determine navigational location by measuring the angles of celestial bodies above the horizon.
The most important of the medieval Europeans who were traveling by land to the Far East was _____________, the son of an Italian merchant who accompanied his father and uncle on a trip to China in 1271.
The spirit of exploration came to Portugal in the late Middle Ages, and no one was more captivated by that spirit than _______________, the son of King John I of Portugal who spent his life avidly promoting Portuguese navigation and exploration of the open seas and distant lands, and organized a "school of navigators."
Prince Henry the Navigator
In 1488, ___________ sailed all the way to the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, a feat many Europeans said was impossible.
In 1498, ____________ rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed across the Indian Ocean to Calicut, India, becoming the first European to reach the Far East by sea.
Vasco de Gama
When Bartolomeu Dias returned from his voyage in 1488, _____________, an Italian-born adventurer, was waiting to greet the daring explorer.
By the time Bartolomeu Dias returned from his voyage in 1488, Columbus had his own plan for a voyage to the ___________, as the Far East was sometimes called.
After stopping at the Canary Islands, Columbus and his crew sailed westward across the Atlantic in what three tiny ships?
What is the exact date that Columbus and his crew finally reached the islands of San Salvador in the Bahamas?
October 12, 1492
On October 12, 1492, Columbus and his crew finally reach land-the island of ___________ in the Bahamas.
Who discovered the New World on October 12, 1492?
On his third voyage, Columbus became governor of ____________, the colony he had founded on Hispaniola.
The first man to realize that Columbus had indeed discovered a new land was _____________, an Italian sailor who supposedly made four voyages to the New World around 1500 and allegedly wrote letters about his exploits.
In 1507, a German cartographer included one of Amerigo Vespucci's letters in a geography book and suggested that the new land be named:
Since Columbus believed he had arrived in the Indies, he called the Native Americans __________, a name that still refers to the native peoples of the Americans.
The first Indian tribe encountered by Columbus was the __________, whom he met at San Salvador.
Columbus dealt with an Indian, cannibalistic tribe, the _______________, for whom the Caribbean Sea is named.
What was the group of Native Americans that built the first great civilization in the Western Hemisphere?
The most important Indian civilization in South America was the ___________, who lived in the Andes mountains of modern-day Peru.
About A.D. 1200, the Incas built a kingdom around their capital city of:
The most powerful Native American empire at the beginning of the Age of Exploration belonged to the:
What was the capital city of the Aztecs that was built on an island in a shallow lake where Mexico City stands today?
Using Columbus's colonies on Hispaniola as a base, Spanish _____________ began to eagerly explore and conquer the New World in hopes of bringing glory to Spain and spreading Romanism among the native inhabitants.
In 1513, ____________ made the first Spanish landing on the North American mainland when he discovered Florida while searching for a legendary "fountain of youth."
Ponce de León
In 1513, __________ crossed the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean.
Vasco de Balboa
When did Ferdinand Magellan on a three-year voyage around the world?
What Portuguese sailor employed by Spain embarked on a three-year voyage around the world in 1519?
In 1519, the Spanish conquest of American mainland began when ___________ landed in Mexico and by 1521, he had conquered the Aztec Indians.
Who was the powerful chieftain of the Aztecs ruled at the time when Hernando Cortés conquered them?
Who conquered the Inca Indians of Peru between 1531 and 1533?
Between 1540 and 1542, _____________, on a futile quest to find legendary cities made of gold, explored the southwestern United States; one of his parties of men discovered the Grand Canyon.
Who, in 1541, discovered the Mississippi River?
Hernando de Soto
Who, in 1542, was a Portuguese employed by Spain and explored the coast of California?
To end the rivalry between Portugal and Spain, Pope Alexander VI, in 1493, drew an imaginary _____________ 100 leagues west of the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands in the Atlantic.
Line of Demarcation
In what year did Pope Alexander VI draw the imaginary Line of Demarcation to end the rivalry between Spain and Portugal?
In 1500, Portuguese sailor ___________, having been blown off course by a storm in the Atlantic, landed in South America on Portugal's side of the Line of Demarcation and discovered Brazil.
In 1500, Portuguese Pedro Cabral discovered ___________, beginning Portugal's own empire in the New World.
France began to explore the northern half of the New World, hoping to find the _______________, a supposed water route through North America to the Pacific.
Who, in 1542, was the Italian who explored for France the eastern coast of North America from North Carolina to Nova Scotia, Canada?
Giovanni de Verrazano
Between 1534 and 1535, ____________ led an expedition that discovered the St. Lawrence River in northeastern Canada.
When did John Cabot explore the eastern coast of North America from the coast of Labrador in Canada to Virginia?
Who, in 1497, was an Italian navigator in the service of King Henry VII of England, explored the eastern coast of North America from the coast of Labrador in Canada to Virginia, and became the first modern explorer to reach the North American mainland?