Chapter 13-The Rise Of Modern Nations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13-The Rise Of Modern Nations Deck (164):
1

Among the earliest known inhabitants of the British Isles were the _______, the barbaric descendants of people from the European mainland.

Celts

2

What was th special group of Celtic men who acted as teachers, judges, and priests and conducted religious ceremonies which included human sacrifice?

Druids

3

What is the mysterious monument that still stands in southern England and may have been an ancient Celtic worship site and observatory?

Stonehenge

4

What were the three groups of Germanic tribes that began to arrive in Britain in the 5th century A.D. and left everything in ruins?

Angels
Saxons
Jutes

5

What legendary king is one of the Celtic heroes that is remembered in poetry and prose

King Arthur

6

The Angels gave their name to the southern part of Britain- "Angleland", or:

England

7

Who were the poets who renowned the early Saxons and devised long poems about war heroes and chanted them to their tribal chiefs for entertainment?

scops

8

What is the greatest Saxon poem that still remains?

Beowulf

9

Who was the missionary appointed by Pope Gregory I in 596 and began the enormous task of converting the Anglo-Saxobs to Roman Catholicism?

Augustine

10

Augustine the missionary eventually became the first ____________, the most influential church office in England?

archbishop of Canterbury

11

In what year did all of England officially accept Romanism?

664

12

In the mid-800s, a group of Vikings called the _______ began to invade England.

Danes

13

By 870, the Danes controlled most of England outside of _________, the leading Saxon kingdom.

Wessex

14

In a treaty with the Vikings, King Alfred the Great confined the Danes to the northeastern portion of England, an area called the:

Danelaw

15

Who was the first great king of England and was named this for his accomplishments, and helped in many ways to make England a nation-state?

Alfred the Great

16

King Alfred the Great made Englishman aware of their common history through a running account of current events, the ____________, which continued to be written for hundreds of years.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

17

In 886, King Alfred the Great occupied ________, an important town located on the Thames River in southeastern Britain.

London

18

Under less competent leadership, England fell to new Viking leaders, and in 1016, __________, who ruled England, Denmark, and Norway as a great empire, became king.

Canute the Dane

19

What were the four countries that became most evident to that circumstances tended toward unity?

England
France
Spain
Portugal

20

Who was the Saxon king who returned to the throne in 1042 with the help of the English nobles?

Edward the Confessor

21

When Edward the Confessor died, William, duke of Normandy, stepped forward to claim the throne. Ignoring William's claims, the English nobles made the most powerful among them, __________, king.

Harold Godwin

22

William, duke of Normandy, decided to settle the issue of who would be king in battle and sailed with an army of 10,000 or more men to England, where he met Harold's forces at the __________ on October 14, 1066.

Battle of Hastings

23

In what year did the Battle of Hastings take place?

1066

24

When William, duke of Normandy, defeated Harold Godwin, he baca me known as:

William the Conqueror

25

William the Conqueror's victory at the Battle of Hastings was known as the:

Norman Conquest

26

King William directed his assistants to take a ____________ (a count of the people and property) to inventory his "property".

Census

27

The results of King William's census were entered in the:

Domesday Book

28

King William abolished the _________, the old assembly of nobles, and replaced it with the Great Council.

Witan

29

King William abolished the Witan, and replaced it with the __________, a body composed only of chief vassals.

Great Council

30

The most important Norman king after William the Conqueror was his son, _________, whose reign was characterized by his wisdom and fairness.

Henry I

31

After coming to the throne, King Henry issued his ____________, promising to end heavy taxation of the nobles and the church and not to abuse his power as king.

"Charter of Liberties"

32

Along with the "Charter of Liberties," King Henry also established the __________, a group of nobles and administrators who looked after the government's finances and acted as judges over revenue matters.

Exchequer

33

In 1154, the Norman dynasty ended when _________, the grandson of Henry I, became king and initiated Plantagenet line of kings.

Henry II

34

Henry II initiated the __________ line of kings.

Plantagenet

35

It was during Henry II's reign that the _________ (laws common to all English men) began to develop from case-by-case decision of judges based upon long-accepted customs.

Common law

36

Henry II established ___________, which was a group of people called to give a verdict, or true statement, in regard to a legal matter.

trial by jury

37

When Henry II died, he was succeeded by his son __________; an English king who loved crusades and combat, earning the name "Lion-Hearted" from his exploits.

Richard I

38

While Richard I would be out fighting in crusades, ___________, Richard's mother, maintained the realm, aided by the stable government and justice system that her husband Henry II had established, and was the only person to be royalty in both France and England.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

39

Upon Richard's death, his brother ________ became king. Already well-known for his treachery, selfishness, and cruelty, he succeeded in becoming the most hated king in English history.

John

40

King _________ of France used John's bad behavior as an excuse to declare that the English king had broken the promises of a vassal, then took more than half of the English possessions in mainland Europe.

Philip Augustus

41

On June 15th, _______, a group of English and Danish noblemen and clergy met King John at the meadow of Runnymede, where they presented him with the Magna Carta.

1215

42

On June 15th, 1215, a group of English and Danish noblemen and clergy met King John at the meadow of ___________, near London, where they presented him with the Magna Carta.

Runnymede

43

On June 15th, 1215, a group of English and Danish noblemen and clergy met King John at the meadow of Runnymede, near London, where they presented him with one of the most important documents in the history of the world-the ________, where the ancient rights and privileges of the people were clearly defined.

Magna Carter

44

What was the right of an arrested person to appear before a court to determine if his imprisonment is legal?

habeas corpus

45

What is a written plan which sets up a form of government and establishes its basic governing principles?

Constitution

46

The Magna Carta would become an important part of English __________ (rules for exercise and restraint of governmental power).

Constitution

47

Who was King John's son who became king in 1216, was a weak king that made many mistakes, increased taxes, and treated his foreign friends and relatives better than he did Englishmen?

Henry III

48

Who was the leader of the rebelling nobles who took control of the government and called what is remembered as the first meeting of Parliament in 1265?

Simon de Montfort

49

Simon de Montfort took control of the government and called what is remembered as the first meeting of Parliament in:

1265

50

Henry III's son ___________ came to the throne in 1272, was nicknamed "Longshanks" for his long legs, and was the first pure Englishman to sit on the throne since the Norman Conquest.

Edward I

51

Beginning with Edward's ____________ of 1295, representative government became a regular feature of the English government.

"Modern Parliament"

52

Members of Parliament stated their wishes in precise petitions called _______, which they presented to the king for his enactment before they would agree to new taxes.

bills

53

Edward I's son, _________, became king and the nation suffered as a small group of selfish men manipulated this weak king.

Edward II

54

Parliament forced Edward II to abdicate and set up his young son _________ as king in 1327, and divided Parliament into two institutions.

Edward III

55

Under King Edward III, in Parliament, the great nobles and high church leaders began to sit apart as the:

House of Lords

56

Under King Edward III, in Parliament, the representatives came together as the ___________, which eventually represented the entire English nation.

House of Commons

57

For over a thousand years, the Celtic tribes of _________ maintained a constant struggle with successive invaders and conquerors of England.

Wales

58

When Edward I came to the English throne, ____________, refused to render homage to the new king; war then followed and he was killed. And in honor of this Welsh chieftain, his title was used ever since to the heir of the throne.

Llewellyn the Prince of Wales

59

Edward I also brought _________ into his kingdom in 1296, but the people loved their ancient liberties too well to submit quietly to the loss of their national independence.

Scotland

60

Under the inspiration and leadership of the famous _____________, an outlaw knight, all the Lowlands, especially the peasantry, were soon in determined revolt.

Sir William Wallace

61

Whose tragic death lifted him to the place he has held ever since as the national hero of Scotland?

Sir William Wallace

62

Sir William Wallace's struggle with the Scottish was soon renewed by the equally renowned ____________, who represented the Scottish nobles, as Wallace had the common people.

Robert the Bruce

63

Robert the Bruce and Edward II fought the great _____________ in 1314; Edward's army was nearly annihilated in the most appalling disaster that an English army had suffered since the Norman Conquest.

Battle of Bannockburn

64

Under Edward III, England clashed with France in what became known as the:

Hundred Years' War

65

From what years did the Hundred Years' War last?

1337-1453

66

England won several famous battles in the Hundred Years' War fought on French soil- at what three places?

Crécy
Poitiers
Agincourt

67

Who was the peasant girl who claimed to hear "heavenly voices" and led the French into battle and won a few victories, then was captured by the English and executed?

Joan of Arc

68

After the Hundred Years' War, England lost except the port of:

Calais

69

Who won the Hundred Years' War?

France

70

Who was the last Plantagenet king who lost the throne during the Hundred Years' War?

Richard II

71

Who took the place of King Richard II, and began the dynasty of the House of Lancaster?

Henry IV

72

Henry IV took the place of King Richard II, and what dynasty began?

House of Lancaster

73

What noble family claimed the throne and ensued civil war when the last Lancastrian king, Henry VI, went insane?

House of York

74

In what year did the Yorks and Lancasters begin the Wars of the Roses?

1455

75

In 1455 the Yorks and Lancasters began the:

Wars of the Roses

76

In 1461, the duke of York became King ___________, but the fighting of the Wars of the Roses still continued.

Edward IV

77

When did the Wars of the Roses finally end?

1485

78

In 1485, the Wars of the Roses finally ended with the _____________, when Henry Tudor defeated the last York ruler and became the first Tudor king of England.

Battle of Bosworth Field

79

In 1485, the Wars of the Roses finally ended with the Battle of Bosworth Field, when Henry Tudor defeated the last York ruler and became _________, the first Tudor king of England.

Henry VII

80

Who won the Wars of the Roses between the Yorks and the Lancasters?

The Lancasters

81

After the Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne's empire in 843, _______ (named for the Franks) began to develop as an individual kingdom.

France

82

In what year did the last Carolingian king of France die and Hugh Capet became king?

987

83

Following the death of the last Carolingian king of France in 987, the French nobles chose who to be king?

Hugh Capet

84

The coronation of Hugh Capet began what line of kings that is often marked as the beginning of the modern French nation?

Capetian

85

Although Hugh Capet was supposedly the king of France, he actually controlled only a tiny patch of land called the _________, which was his own feudal domain, centered in Paris.

Ile-de-France

86

Hugh Capet controlled a tiny patch of land called the Ile-de-France, his own feudal domain, centered on:

Paris

87

By the reign of ________, the Caprtians were ready to challenge the nobles' power.

Louis VI

88

What French king made the French monarchy stronger than any other single noble in France?

Philip II

89

Phillip II's grandson __________ continued the trends if his grandfather and became one of France's most memorable kings.

Louis IX

90

The inevitable conflict climaxed when _______ began to quarrel with Pope Boniface VIII over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent.

Philip IV

91

The inevitable conflict climaxed when Philip IV began to quarrel with Pope _________ over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent.

Boniface VIII

92

It was during Philip's conflict with Pope Boniface over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent that the _________, the French version of Parliament, was called. These people simply agreed to what the kings proposed.

Estates-General

93

The last Capetian died in 1328, and the French ___________ claimed the throne of France.

House of Valois

94

Spain and Portugal are located in southwestern Europe on the ___________, which is named for its earliest known inhabitants.

Iberian Peninsula

95

The Phoenicians founded the city of ________, in Spain, in which became a large, prosperous city in the ancient world and still exists today.

Cádiz

96

The Romans called the Iberian Peninsula:

Hispania or Spain

97

In what year did the Muslim Moors from North Africa crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and invaded Spain, conquered the Visigoths, but were defeated by Charles Martel at Tours?

711

98

What group of Muslims from North Africa invaded Spain, conquered the Visigoths, but were defeated by Charles Martel at Tours?

Moors

99

What city was the great center of Moorish culture, and Spain's capital at the time, and thrived with a population of nearly half a million people?

Cordova

100

The Moors constructed many beautiful mosques in Spain and fortified palaces known as alcazars, the most famous of which is the _____________ in Granada.

Alhambra

101

In the 11th century, many small kingdoms of northern Spain began to wage their own crusade, the ____________, to take back Spain from the Moors.

Reconquista

102

What kingdom of the Reconquista crusade became the most powerful and led the other kingdoms in conquering the northern half of Spain?

Castile

103

Who was the Spanish national hero who fought against the Muslims and capture the city of Valencia during the time of the Reconquista crusade?

El Cid

104

Because of the Reconquista crusade, the Moors were driven to ________ in southern Spain.

Granada

105

By the 1400s, Castile controlled most of Spain, and the kingdom of ___________ ruled the eastern part of the peninsula.

Aragon

106

What Prince of Aragon married Princess Isabella of Castile in 1569, uniting the two chief kingdoms of Spain?

Prince Ferdinand

107

What princess of Castile married Prince Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469, uniting the two chief kingdoms of Spain?

Princess Isabella

108

In what year did the Moors in Granada surrender to Spain, bringing all of Spain under the rule of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella?

1492

109

In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain dispatched the Italian navigator _______________ to find a new route to the East Indies; his discovery of the New World inaugurated Spain's "golden country."

Christopher Columbus

110

In 1492, _____________, a brilliant Spanish scholar, wrote a grammar book for the Castilian's language that became the basis for the modern Spanish tongue.

Antonio de Nebrija

111

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella began the infamous ______________ to root up and destroy all "heretics" in Spain.

Spanish Inquisition

112

The name of Tomás de ___________, the first Grand Inquisitors of the Spanish Inquisition, became synonymous with cruelty and torture.

Torquemada

113

Some of the Phoenicians and Greeks who came to the Iberian Peninsula settled in what is today:

Portugal

114

When the Romans conquered Spain, they also conquered Portugal, which they called:

Lusitania

115

Under Henry of Burgundy's son, __________, Portugal became an independent nation, and was crowned as the first king of Portugal in 1139.

Alfonso Henriques

116

Alfonso Henriques made what city his capital?

Lisbon

117

Who became king of Portugal in 1385, and his reign marked the beginning of Portugal's greatest days of glory?

John I

118

Modern European civilization, sometimes called ____________, has so profoundly influenced the world that the Modern age is sometimes called the "European Age."

Western civilization

119

The spread of European influence across the globe began with the ________________, when the nations of Europe began in earnest to explore distant lands across uncharted seas.

Age of Exploration

120

Some historians believe that a Viking adventurer named ________________ sailed to America around A.D. 1000, but Viking activity in the New World remained unknown to most Europeans and had no lasting consequences.

Leif Ericson

121

What is the East also referred to?

The Orient

122

The Renaissance produced the ____________, a device used to determine navigational location by measuring the angles of celestial bodies above the horizon.

Astrolabe

123

The most important of the medieval Europeans who were traveling by land to the Far East was _____________, the son of an Italian merchant who accompanied his father and uncle on a trip to China in 1271.

Marco Polo

124

The spirit of exploration came to Portugal in the late Middle Ages, and no one was more captivated by that spirit than _______________, the son of King John I of Portugal who spent his life avidly promoting Portuguese navigation and exploration of the open seas and distant lands, and organized a "school of navigators."

Prince Henry the Navigator

125

In 1488, ___________ sailed all the way to the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, a feat many Europeans said was impossible.

Bartolommeu Dias

126

In 1498, ____________ rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed across the Indian Ocean to Calicut, India, becoming the first European to reach the Far East by sea.

Vasco de Gama

127

When Bartolomeu Dias returned from his voyage in 1488, _____________, an Italian-born adventurer, was waiting to greet the daring explorer.

Christopher Columbus

128

By the time Bartolomeu Dias returned from his voyage in 1488, Columbus had his own plan for a voyage to the ___________, as the Far East was sometimes called.

"Indies"

129

After stopping at the Canary Islands, Columbus and his crew sailed westward across the Atlantic in what three tiny ships?

Niña
Pinta
Santa Maria

130

What is the exact date that Columbus and his crew finally reached the islands of San Salvador in the Bahamas?

October 12, 1492

131

On October 12, 1492, Columbus and his crew finally reach land-the island of ___________ in the Bahamas.

San Salvador

132

Who discovered the New World on October 12, 1492?

Columbus

133

On his third voyage, Columbus became governor of ____________, the colony he had founded on Hispaniola.

Santo Domingo

134

The first man to realize that Columbus had indeed discovered a new land was _____________, an Italian sailor who supposedly made four voyages to the New World around 1500 and allegedly wrote letters about his exploits.

Amerigo Vespucci

135

In 1507, a German cartographer included one of Amerigo Vespucci's letters in a geography book and suggested that the new land be named:

America

136

Since Columbus believed he had arrived in the Indies, he called the Native Americans __________, a name that still refers to the native peoples of the Americans.

"Indians"

137

The first Indian tribe encountered by Columbus was the __________, whom he met at San Salvador.

Arawaks

138

Columbus dealt with an Indian, cannibalistic tribe, the _______________, for whom the Caribbean Sea is named.

Carib Indians

139

What was the group of Native Americans that built the first great civilization in the Western Hemisphere?

Mayas

140

The most important Indian civilization in South America was the ___________, who lived in the Andes mountains of modern-day Peru.

Incas

141

About A.D. 1200, the Incas built a kingdom around their capital city of:

Cuzco

142

The most powerful Native American empire at the beginning of the Age of Exploration belonged to the:

Aztecs

143

What was the capital city of the Aztecs that was built on an island in a shallow lake where Mexico City stands today?

Tenochtitlán

144

Using Columbus's colonies on Hispaniola as a base, Spanish _____________ began to eagerly explore and conquer the New World in hopes of bringing glory to Spain and spreading Romanism among the native inhabitants.

Conquistadores

145

In 1513, ____________ made the first Spanish landing on the North American mainland when he discovered Florida while searching for a legendary "fountain of youth."

Ponce de León

146

In 1513, __________ crossed the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean.

Vasco de Balboa

147

When did Ferdinand Magellan on a three-year voyage around the world?

1519

148

What Portuguese sailor employed by Spain embarked on a three-year voyage around the world in 1519?

Ferdinand Magellan

149

In 1519, the Spanish conquest of American mainland began when ___________ landed in Mexico and by 1521, he had conquered the Aztec Indians.

Hernando Cortés

150

Who was the powerful chieftain of the Aztecs ruled at the time when Hernando Cortés conquered them?

Montezuma II

151

Who conquered the Inca Indians of Peru between 1531 and 1533?

Francisco Pizarro

152

Between 1540 and 1542, _____________, on a futile quest to find legendary cities made of gold, explored the southwestern United States; one of his parties of men discovered the Grand Canyon.

Francisco Coronado

153

Who, in 1541, discovered the Mississippi River?

Hernando de Soto

154

Who, in 1542, was a Portuguese employed by Spain and explored the coast of California?

Juan Cabrillo

155

To end the rivalry between Portugal and Spain, Pope Alexander VI, in 1493, drew an imaginary _____________ 100 leagues west of the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands in the Atlantic.

Line of Demarcation

156

In what year did Pope Alexander VI draw the imaginary Line of Demarcation to end the rivalry between Spain and Portugal?

1493

157

In 1500, Portuguese sailor ___________, having been blown off course by a storm in the Atlantic, landed in South America on Portugal's side of the Line of Demarcation and discovered Brazil.

Pedro Cabral

158

In 1500, Portuguese Pedro Cabral discovered ___________, beginning Portugal's own empire in the New World.

Brazil

159

France began to explore the northern half of the New World, hoping to find the _______________, a supposed water route through North America to the Pacific.

Northwest Passage

160

Who, in 1542, was the Italian who explored for France the eastern coast of North America from North Carolina to Nova Scotia, Canada?

Giovanni de Verrazano

161

Between 1534 and 1535, ____________ led an expedition that discovered the St. Lawrence River in northeastern Canada.

Jacques Cartier

162

When did John Cabot explore the eastern coast of North America from the coast of Labrador in Canada to Virginia?

1497

163

Who, in 1497, was an Italian navigator in the service of King Henry VII of England, explored the eastern coast of North America from the coast of Labrador in Canada to Virginia, and became the first modern explorer to reach the North American mainland?

John Cabot

164

John Cabot's exploration of ____________, Canada gave England a major claim to territory in the New World.

Newfoundland