Chapter 17-France: The Road to Revolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17-France: The Road to Revolution Deck (75):
1

Who was the cardinal who ruled for Louis XIV, who was the son of Cardinal Richelieu?

Mazarin

2

What did Louis XIV say that meant "I am the state" that meant he was "it"?

L'etat, c'est moi (lay ta sey mua)

3

Louis XIV established one of the first of what kind of government?

Bureaucratic

4

What does Bureaucracy literally mean?

"Government by men who sit at desks"

5

What kind of kings were those who expected unconditional obedience to their authority?

Authoritarian

6

What was the era when European monarchs reached their height in power because several monarchs aspired to have absolute power?

Age of Absolutism

7

What kind of monarchs have total power over every area of the people's individual lives?

Totalitarian

8

What was one of the great works of architecture that King Louis XIV had built, and with its Hall of Mirrors, tapestry, chandeliers, and frequent formal occasions, offered much entertainment to keep the aristocracy occupied?

Palace of Versailles

9

Who was Louis XIV's minister of finance who mobilized the country's economic resources?

Jean Baptiste Colbert

10

Who was the man known as "the father of New France," who founded Quebec?

Samuel de Champlain

11

When did Samuel de Champlain found Quebec?

1608

12

In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded _____________, the first permanent French colony in America.

Quebec

13

Who were the two frenchmen who explored the central Mississippi River?

Jacques Marquette
Louis Joliet

14

Who was the man who claimed the Mississippi Valley for France?

Cavalier de la Salle

15

France claimed Canada, the Great Lakes region, and the Mississippi Valley as:

"New France"

16

Who was the son of Louis XIII, who was five years when his father died, and became known as the "Sun King," and was the epitome of an absolute ruler, and his reign of over 70 years was one of the longest reign of any king in history?

Louis XIV

17

When Europe realized the Louis XIV's actions threatened the rest of Europe, several European nations in 1686 formed a coalition against France known as the _____________, which consisted mainly of England, the Dutch Republic, the Holy Roman Empire, and several other German states.

League of Augsburg

18

What war broke out in 1688 where the French won several battles but could not defeat so many enemies at once, and was resolved with the Treaty of Ryswick?

War of the League of Augsburg

19

What did King Louis XIV sign in 1697, which established the "status quo ante bellum" (existing state before the war), after the War of the League of Augsburg?

Treaty of Ryswick

20

What was the most costly war of Louis XIV's reign when Louis accepted King Philip of Spain's claim to the Spanish throne, and war erupted in 1702 between France and an alliance including England, the Dutch Republic, and Austria?

War of the Spanish Succession

21

What was the most notable victory for England against the French in the War of the Spanish Succession along the Danube River in 1704?

Battle of Blenheim

22

The War of the Spanish Succession ended in 1713 with the signing of the ______________, a series of agreements among the warring nations.

Treaty of Utrecht

23

The Treaty of Utrecht established a lot including the _____________ concept-an idea that no nation should be too strong or weak.

Balance of power

24

What age in France began what was also known as a new "dark age" for France, that was a movement that attempted to apply unaided human philosophy to all areas of man's life in order to establish a new social order?

Age of Enlightenment

25

Who was one of the most influential Enlightenment philosophers who was called "the Father of the Enlightenment," and elevated the philosophy of rationalism?

Voltaire

26

What is the idea that man's reason is the sole criterion for truth?

Rationalism

27

Who was an influential philosopher of the Enlightenment, was called "the Father of French Romanticism," and developed the philosophy of romanticism?

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

28

What is the philosophy developed by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, which exalted man's emotions and imagination as the basis for truth, and advocated a "return to nature"?

Romanticism

29

Who was an important figure of the Enlightenment, was the editor of the Encyclopedia, a multivolume work that was an attempt to reorganize all human knowledge from the perspective of rationalism?

Denis Diderot

30

Who was the grandson of Louis XIV who inherited the throne when Louis XIV died in 1715, was a weak ruler, was more interested in personal pleasure than he was in governing the country, but realized that the system of government was in deep trouble, and said: "Après moi le déluge"-"After me the deluge"?

Louis XV

31

Who was the son of Louis XV, and was the king of France who was unfit for the task of leading a nation, because he had neither the education nor the character for the job, and under his rule France would succumb to the revolution?

Louis XVI

32

What were the three estates in France?

First estate--clergy
Second estate--nobility
Third estate--from middle-class merchant to poor peasant

33

When Louis XVI asked the French nobility to pay more taxes, the nobility didn't cooperate, and the nobility demanded that Louis XVI call the ____________ to meet in May 1789.

Estates General

34

On June 17, after a few priests from the First Estate joined the Third Estates' ranks, the Third Estate declared itself to be the ____________, the official representative body of all the people of France.

National Assembly

35

On June 20, 1789, the National Assembly took the so-called _______________, vowing to continue meeting until a national constitution had been written.

Tennis Court Oath

36

Who was Louis XVI's wife who, with Louis's brothers and some nobles, told the king that the National Assembly threatened his dignity and authority?

Marie Antoinette

37

What is the exact date when a Parisian mob stormed the Bastille, where 98 people were killed, and 7 saved?

July 14, 1789

38

On July 14, 1789, a Parisian mob stormed _____________, an old castle stronghold in Paris used primarily as a prison, 98 being killed, and 7 being saved.

Bastille

39

What did the National Assembly create to meet the demands of the peasants, by which the National Assembly ended the lord's privileges of collecting land taxes from the peasants' lands, and taking special privileges over peasants in the court of law?

August 4 Decrees

40

On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly adopted the _____________________, proclaiming to the world "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death."

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

41

On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, proclaiming to the world "_________________," the slogan for the new regime in France.

"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death"

42

Several of those who supported the revolution to go to even further extremes organized the radical _________________, which met in an old monastery in France.

Jacobin Club

43

A major cause of dissatisfaction in France was the __________________, adopted by the National Assembly in 1709, which attempted to justify the confiscation of church property and the establishment of a Church of France.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

44

When the National Assembly adopted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1709, the National Assembly was now known as the:

Constituent Assembly

45

What was France's first written constitution that stated that the main institution of government was to be a popularly elected legislative assembly, where the king was given only limited veto power by the constitution, he could temporarily delay legislation, but he could not block it indefinitely?

Constitution of 1791

46

In September 1729, the Constitution Assembly was replaced by a more radical __________________ (controlled by the Left of the National Assembly), which was to rule temporarily and write another new constitution.

National Convention

47

What is a device for chopping off human heads called?

Guillotine

48

To quell the growing anarchy, the National Convention set up the _________________, composed of 12 men holding extensive police and judicial powers.

Committee of Public Safety

49

Who was a member of the Committee of Public Safety, a prominent member of the Jacobin Club, who became the most influential man in the French government?

Maximilian Robespierre

50

To suppress antirevolutionary movements, the Committee of Public Safety instituted what was called the _______________, where suspected "enemies of the Republic" were killed, making some 40,000 people being killed.

"Reign of Terror"

51

What new system of weights and measures did the revolutionists devise because the old system reminded them of the kings and aristocrats who had established it?

Metric system

52

What is the religion that rejected Scriptures and professed that God is an impersonal Being Who is revealed only in nature, and must be sought through man's reason?

Deism

53

Following Robespierre's fall, thecNational Convention adopted a new constitution and established a new government, the ______________, the fifth government of France in as many years.

Directory

54

Who was the man who was trained in the French military schools, was declared by the pope emperor of France, and crowned himself emperor?

Napoleon Bonaparte

55

In what year did Napoleon and his followers drive out the legislators of the Directory from their chambers and proclaimed a new republic?

1799

56

On November 9, 1799, Napoleon and his followers drove the legislators of the Directory from their chambers and proclaimed a new republic, called the:

Consulate

57

What is an election in which the people express their will?

Plebiscite

58

Napoleon established what new law codes that became the most famous since those of the Romans?

Code Napoleon

59

In 1801, Napoleon signed the _____________ (formal agreement) with the pope to make peace with the Catholic Church.

Concordat

60

On October 21, 1805, the British navy destroyed a combined French and Spanish fleet at the famous ___________________, one of the greatest sea battles in history.

Battle of Trafalgar

61

Who was the commander of the British navy at the Battle of Trafalgar was the renowned __________________, considered by some to be the greatest naval hero that the world has ever known.

Lord Horatio Nelson

62

In the month following the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon crushed a combined Austrian-Russian army at the ________________, the greatest victory of Napoleon's career.

Battle of Austerlitz

63

Who dominated virtually all of Europe by 1812?

Napoleon

64

Who was Napoleon's second wife, who was the 18-year-old daughter of the Austrian emperor, and was also the niece of Marie Antoinette?

Marie Louise

65

In 1806, Napoleon established the ______________, which forbade the importation of British goods into any European country under French control?

"Continental System"

66

In defiance of Napoleon's dictates (stopping trade between England and neutral countries), _______________ of Russia withdrew his country from the Continental System and began to trade with England?

Czar Alexander I

67

June 22, in what year did Napoleon begin the Russian campaign and took few provisions, intending to live off land?

1812

68

In October 1813, the combined forces of Europe defeated Napoleon's new army at what battle?

Battle of Leipzig

69

What is the Battle of Leipzig sometimes called?

"Battle of Nations"

70

The forces of Europe exiled Napoleon to the island of ___________, on the Italian coast, where he was sentenced to live out his days as the sovereign of the island.

Elba

71

When Europe exiled Napoleon to Elba, the coalition of European nations then restored the Bourbon monarchy to the throne of France, and Louis XVI's brother was crowned:

Louis XVIII

72

In what year on June 18 did Napoleon meet his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium?

1815

73

On June 18, 1815, Napoleon met his final defeat at the ________________ in Belgium.

Battle of Waterloo

74

The combined British and Prussian armies were led by the ___________________, a brilliant British general, and crushed the French army in the Battle of Waterloo.

Duke of Wellington

75

The second time Napoleon was exiled, it was to the distant island of _________________, in the south Atlantic, where he lived out the remaining six years of his life.

St. Helena