Flashcards in Chapter 17-France: The Road to Revolution Deck (75)
Who was the cardinal who ruled for Louis XIV, who was the son of Cardinal Richelieu?
What did Louis XIV say that meant "I am the state" that meant he was "it"?
L'etat, c'est moi (lay ta sey mua)
Louis XIV established one of the first of what kind of government?
What does Bureaucracy literally mean?
"Government by men who sit at desks"
What kind of kings were those who expected unconditional obedience to their authority?
What was the era when European monarchs reached their height in power because several monarchs aspired to have absolute power?
Age of Absolutism
What kind of monarchs have total power over every area of the people's individual lives?
What was one of the great works of architecture that King Louis XIV had built, and with its Hall of Mirrors, tapestry, chandeliers, and frequent formal occasions, offered much entertainment to keep the aristocracy occupied?
Palace of Versailles
Who was Louis XIV's minister of finance who mobilized the country's economic resources?
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Who was the man known as "the father of New France," who founded Quebec?
Samuel de Champlain
When did Samuel de Champlain found Quebec?
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded _____________, the first permanent French colony in America.
Who were the two frenchmen who explored the central Mississippi River?
Who was the man who claimed the Mississippi Valley for France?
Cavalier de la Salle
France claimed Canada, the Great Lakes region, and the Mississippi Valley as:
Who was the son of Louis XIII, who was five years when his father died, and became known as the "Sun King," and was the epitome of an absolute ruler, and his reign of over 70 years was one of the longest reign of any king in history?
When Europe realized the Louis XIV's actions threatened the rest of Europe, several European nations in 1686 formed a coalition against France known as the _____________, which consisted mainly of England, the Dutch Republic, the Holy Roman Empire, and several other German states.
League of Augsburg
What war broke out in 1688 where the French won several battles but could not defeat so many enemies at once, and was resolved with the Treaty of Ryswick?
War of the League of Augsburg
What did King Louis XIV sign in 1697, which established the "status quo ante bellum" (existing state before the war), after the War of the League of Augsburg?
Treaty of Ryswick
What was the most costly war of Louis XIV's reign when Louis accepted King Philip of Spain's claim to the Spanish throne, and war erupted in 1702 between France and an alliance including England, the Dutch Republic, and Austria?
War of the Spanish Succession
What was the most notable victory for England against the French in the War of the Spanish Succession along the Danube River in 1704?
Battle of Blenheim
The War of the Spanish Succession ended in 1713 with the signing of the ______________, a series of agreements among the warring nations.
Treaty of Utrecht
The Treaty of Utrecht established a lot including the _____________ concept-an idea that no nation should be too strong or weak.
Balance of power
What age in France began what was also known as a new "dark age" for France, that was a movement that attempted to apply unaided human philosophy to all areas of man's life in order to establish a new social order?
Age of Enlightenment
Who was one of the most influential Enlightenment philosophers who was called "the Father of the Enlightenment," and elevated the philosophy of rationalism?
What is the idea that man's reason is the sole criterion for truth?
Who was an influential philosopher of the Enlightenment, was called "the Father of French Romanticism," and developed the philosophy of romanticism?
What is the philosophy developed by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, which exalted man's emotions and imagination as the basis for truth, and advocated a "return to nature"?
Who was an important figure of the Enlightenment, was the editor of the Encyclopedia, a multivolume work that was an attempt to reorganize all human knowledge from the perspective of rationalism?
Who was the grandson of Louis XIV who inherited the throne when Louis XIV died in 1715, was a weak ruler, was more interested in personal pleasure than he was in governing the country, but realized that the system of government was in deep trouble, and said: "Après moi le déluge"-"After me the deluge"?
Who was the son of Louis XV, and was the king of France who was unfit for the task of leading a nation, because he had neither the education nor the character for the job, and under his rule France would succumb to the revolution?
What were the three estates in France?
Third estate--from middle-class merchant to poor peasant
When Louis XVI asked the French nobility to pay more taxes, the nobility didn't cooperate, and the nobility demanded that Louis XVI call the ____________ to meet in May 1789.
On June 17, after a few priests from the First Estate joined the Third Estates' ranks, the Third Estate declared itself to be the ____________, the official representative body of all the people of France.
On June 20, 1789, the National Assembly took the so-called _______________, vowing to continue meeting until a national constitution had been written.
Tennis Court Oath
Who was Louis XVI's wife who, with Louis's brothers and some nobles, told the king that the National Assembly threatened his dignity and authority?
What is the exact date when a Parisian mob stormed the Bastille, where 98 people were killed, and 7 saved?
July 14, 1789
On July 14, 1789, a Parisian mob stormed _____________, an old castle stronghold in Paris used primarily as a prison, 98 being killed, and 7 being saved.
What did the National Assembly create to meet the demands of the peasants, by which the National Assembly ended the lord's privileges of collecting land taxes from the peasants' lands, and taking special privileges over peasants in the court of law?
August 4 Decrees
On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly adopted the _____________________, proclaiming to the world "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death."
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, proclaiming to the world "_________________," the slogan for the new regime in France.
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death"
Several of those who supported the revolution to go to even further extremes organized the radical _________________, which met in an old monastery in France.
A major cause of dissatisfaction in France was the __________________, adopted by the National Assembly in 1709, which attempted to justify the confiscation of church property and the establishment of a Church of France.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
When the National Assembly adopted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1709, the National Assembly was now known as the:
What was France's first written constitution that stated that the main institution of government was to be a popularly elected legislative assembly, where the king was given only limited veto power by the constitution, he could temporarily delay legislation, but he could not block it indefinitely?
Constitution of 1791
In September 1729, the Constitution Assembly was replaced by a more radical __________________ (controlled by the Left of the National Assembly), which was to rule temporarily and write another new constitution.
What is a device for chopping off human heads called?
To quell the growing anarchy, the National Convention set up the _________________, composed of 12 men holding extensive police and judicial powers.
Committee of Public Safety
Who was a member of the Committee of Public Safety, a prominent member of the Jacobin Club, who became the most influential man in the French government?
To suppress antirevolutionary movements, the Committee of Public Safety instituted what was called the _______________, where suspected "enemies of the Republic" were killed, making some 40,000 people being killed.
"Reign of Terror"
What new system of weights and measures did the revolutionists devise because the old system reminded them of the kings and aristocrats who had established it?
What is the religion that rejected Scriptures and professed that God is an impersonal Being Who is revealed only in nature, and must be sought through man's reason?
Following Robespierre's fall, thecNational Convention adopted a new constitution and established a new government, the ______________, the fifth government of France in as many years.
Who was the man who was trained in the French military schools, was declared by the pope emperor of France, and crowned himself emperor?
In what year did Napoleon and his followers drive out the legislators of the Directory from their chambers and proclaimed a new republic?
On November 9, 1799, Napoleon and his followers drove the legislators of the Directory from their chambers and proclaimed a new republic, called the:
What is an election in which the people express their will?
Napoleon established what new law codes that became the most famous since those of the Romans?
In 1801, Napoleon signed the _____________ (formal agreement) with the pope to make peace with the Catholic Church.
On October 21, 1805, the British navy destroyed a combined French and Spanish fleet at the famous ___________________, one of the greatest sea battles in history.
Battle of Trafalgar
Who was the commander of the British navy at the Battle of Trafalgar was the renowned __________________, considered by some to be the greatest naval hero that the world has ever known.
Lord Horatio Nelson
In the month following the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon crushed a combined Austrian-Russian army at the ________________, the greatest victory of Napoleon's career.
Battle of Austerlitz
Who dominated virtually all of Europe by 1812?
Who was Napoleon's second wife, who was the 18-year-old daughter of the Austrian emperor, and was also the niece of Marie Antoinette?
In 1806, Napoleon established the ______________, which forbade the importation of British goods into any European country under French control?
In defiance of Napoleon's dictates (stopping trade between England and neutral countries), _______________ of Russia withdrew his country from the Continental System and began to trade with England?
Czar Alexander I
June 22, in what year did Napoleon begin the Russian campaign and took few provisions, intending to live off land?
In October 1813, the combined forces of Europe defeated Napoleon's new army at what battle?
Battle of Leipzig
What is the Battle of Leipzig sometimes called?
"Battle of Nations"
The forces of Europe exiled Napoleon to the island of ___________, on the Italian coast, where he was sentenced to live out his days as the sovereign of the island.
When Europe exiled Napoleon to Elba, the coalition of European nations then restored the Bourbon monarchy to the throne of France, and Louis XVI's brother was crowned:
In what year on June 18 did Napoleon meet his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium?
On June 18, 1815, Napoleon met his final defeat at the ________________ in Belgium.
Battle of Waterloo
The combined British and Prussian armies were led by the ___________________, a brilliant British general, and crushed the French army in the Battle of Waterloo.
Duke of Wellington