Chapter 24-20th Century Liberalism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24-20th Century Liberalism Deck (66):
1

What is someone who desires freedom from something or freedom to do something?

Liberal

2

What is the principle or practice of conserving (preserving) established traditions or institutions and opposing changes in them?

Conservatism

3

What is the most powerful conservative force through the ages?

Bible

4

What are the false philosophies such as Marxism and Darwinism which desires to strike down absolute truth and rebel against God called?

Pseudosciences

5

Who was the French philosopher who who created positivism?

Auguste Comte

6

What is the pseudoscience that states that nothing can be known except observable scientific "facts"?

Positivism

7

What is the term that was coined to refer to when scientists understood their own immutable "laws," they could manipulate both nature and society and create an earthly utopia free from God and his laws, and was created by Auguste Comte?

"Sociology"

8

What is the desire to be free from absolute standards and morals, especially those of Scriptures?

Liberalism

9

Who was a prominent Austrian psychiatrist, who believed that man was a product of evolution and nothing more than a highly developed animal, and formulated a system known as psychoanalysis?

Sigmund Freud

10

What system did Sigmund Freud formulate which says that subconscious physical drives or irrational fears determine a man's actions?

Psychoanalysis

11

What three men developed behavioral psychology,

Ivan Pavlov
J. B. Watson
B. F. Skinner

12

What system did Ivan Pavlov, J. B. Watson, and B. F. Skinner formulate that denies man's sinful nature by reducing man to the status of an animal or a medicine, and claims that education should consist of psychological "conditioning" giving man a tool for programming individuals to fit in with what the conditions define as the "good of society"?

Behavioral psychology

13

What is the philosophy that an idea or an action should be judged solely by its results, regardless of any moral or Scriptural considerations?

Pragmatism

14

What is the "anti-philosophy" which claims there is not truth or reality, forcing man to make his own meaning in an absurd world?

Existentialism

15

Who was the existentialist, Danish philosopher who taught that all man can do is take a "leap of faith" into the darkness of the "great unknown" in hope of achieving some kind of reality?

Soren Kierkegaard

16

Who was the existentialist, German philosopher who based his ideas on his declaration that "God is dead," and according to him, without God there were no a so,ute values except "the will to power" and that whoever exercised the "will to power" would be free to create his own morals and reality and impose it upon others, something he would call "the superman"?

Friedrich Nietzsche

17

Who was an influential professor of education at the University of Chicago and at Columbia University, and advocated what came to be called "progressive education"?

John Dewey

18

John Dewey advocated what came to be called ________________, where he abandoned the teaching of moral absolutes and encouraged a permissive atmosphere in the classroom that allowed children to "follow their animal instincts" and to practice "self-expression"?

"Progressive education"

19

What kind of education emphasizes to pass on to each individual the knowledge and wisdom learned in previous generations, and to train each individual to use his abilities for the glory of God and for the edification of his fellow man?

Traditional education

20

What is the belief that matters of morality should be based on consideration of the well-being of mankind in this present life, to the exclusion of al, considerations drawn from belief in God or in a future existence?

Secularism

21

What is dependence upon man's reasonings and feelings alone, with no respect for Gods authority, and is ultimately the worship of man?

Humanism

22

In 1933, a group of humanist leaders published a document called the _____________, which expressed point by point the "faith" of humanism.

Humanist Manifesto

23

What book proposed "a design fir a secular society on a planetary scale" and asserting that "traditional theism, especially faith in the prayer-hearing God... is an unproved and outmoded faith"?

Humanist Manifesto II

24

Because liberalists rejected biblical doctrines regarding a literal heaven and hell, man's sinful nature, and salvation by faith in Jesus Christ, declaring that such beliefs were too "old-fashioned" for the "modern age," liberalism is often called:

"Modernism"

25

Modernists viewed the church's mission as one of social reform and political action, and this new message came to be known as the:

"Social gospel"

26

Who was the German theologian who developed a form of Christianity that emphasized social improvement instead of spiritual change?

Albrecht Ritschl

27

Who was known as "the Prophet of Social Gospel," and spoke passionately of "a new order that would rest on the Christian principles of equal rights and democratic distribution of economic power (socialism)"?

Walter Rauschenbusch

28

Who was one of the social gospel's most popular devotees, was also one of the most radical religious liberals, and was a prominent American pastor and teacher who openly attacked the Bible and its doctrines, preaching sermons entitled, "Shall the Fundamentalists Win?" and "The Peril of Worshipping Jesus," and even conducted a nationwide radio program for 20 years, constantly fighting against biblical Christianity?

Harry Emerson Fosdick

29

What was one of the chief goals of the modernists, which was the outward union of all churches, denominations, and sects into one organization regardless of doctrinal differences?

Ecumenism

30

Many of the Christians who remained faithful to God's Word were called ________________, because of an influential series of scholarly essays, The Fundamentals, which were written by some of the leading Bible scholars of the day.

"Fundamentals"

31

What series of scholarly essays eloquently presented the fundamentals of the Christian faith--the inspiration and inerrancy of the Scriptures, the deity of Christ, His virgin birth and miracles, His blood atonement for sin, His bodily resurrection, and His personal return?

The Fundamentals

32

Who was a British minister and Bible scholar, and has been called the "Prince of Expositors" because of his unusual ability to expound the Word of God and teach its truths to his hearers?

G. Campbell Morgan

33

Who were some of the defenders of the faith during this time in Britain?

G. Campbell Morgan
W. H. Griffith Thomas
Sir William Ramsay
Oswald Chambers
Rodney ("Gipsy") Smith

34

Who was the British Christian who was renowned as a Bible conference speaker throughout Britain and the United States?

W. H. Griffith Thomas

35

Who was the Scottish archaeologist who went to the Middle East to study the cities of the New Testament but found that everything was historically accurate, and then dedicated his life to the exploration of Bible lands and to the scientific defense of Christianity?

Sir William Ramsay

36

Who was the Scottish Christian who supervised a YMCA camp during World War I for soldiers stationed in Egypt, and is known for his famous devotional Classic My Utmost for His Highest?

Oswald Chambers

37

Who was the English evangelist who conducted evangelist campaigns for 70 years, and was perhaps the best-loved evangelist of all time, and was soon nicknamed "Gypsy" because he loved to use colorful stories of his gypsy childhood as sermon illustrations?

Rodney ("Gypsy") Smith

38

Who was the Canadian pastor ho was a staunch contender for Fundamentalism and one of the leading authorities on Romanism, which was dominant in many parts of Canada, and opened Toronto Baptist Seminary in 1922 and helped found the Baptist Bible Union in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1923?

T. T. Shields

39

Who was a fundamentalist in America, is remembered as the "Apostle to the Skeptics," and became a very popular evangelist and Bible conference speaker, as well as the author of numerous Christian classics and an editor of The Fundamentals?

R. A. Torrey

40

Who was a great American fundamentalist, and was a great scholar at Princeton University who spoke out against the liberalism in politics that threatened to take away individual responsibilities and freedoms?

J. Gresham Machen

41

Who was converted baseball star, and in almost 50 years of preaching, he spoke face to face, without a public address system, television, or radio, to an estimated 100 million people?

Billy Sunday

42

Toward the end of the 19th century, a movement known as _______________ became prominent. It was an attempt to capture momentary, fleeting "impressions" received by the physical senses; to many impressionist artist, such impressions are the only reality.

Impressionism

43

What is the style of art that emphasized random geometric forms and perspectives in their works, hoping to create a new "reality" in the viewer's mind?

Cubism

44

In the style known as cubism, artists such as Spanish painter _________________ emphasized random geometric forms and perspectives in their works, hoping to create a new "reality" in the viewer's mind.

Pablo Picasso

45

What type of art did the artists sought to do "art for art's sake" and expressed their own subjective thoughts and feelings in a chaotic arrangement of shapes and colors?

"Abstract art"

46

Who was the British artist who wrote and illustrated the beloved Tale of Peter Rabbit, which was the first modern picture book?

Beatrix Potter

47

Who was possibly the most beloved illustrator of all time, whose illustrations warmly portrayed those things that are often most dear to people: their homes, their children, their towns?

Norman Rockwell

48

Who was the British writer and Fabian socialist who blindly wrote of life in the Communist slave-labor camps?

George Bernard Shaw

49

Who was the British science-fiction writer who overlooked the brutality of Joseph Stalin, and claimed that he had "never met a man more candid, fair, and honest"?

H. G. Wells

50

Who was the Socialist writer and philosopher who wrote several books and tracts that charged America's industries with being "oppressors" of common workers, and later became the founder of a socialist commune and helped organize such liberal groups as the American Civil Liberties Union and the League for Industrial Democracy?

Upton Sinclair

51

Who was one of the most outspoken social and literary critics of his day, who ridiculed Christian thought as being out of date and called small-town American society a collection of "mass morons"?

H. L. Mencken

52

Who was a leading critic and novelist who emphasized in his works the "dullness" of middle-class morality and the supposed "hypocrisy" of conservative religious leaders?

Sinclair Lewis

53

Who was the British author who grounded his mystery stories, essays, and other works in moral absolutes and Christian philosophy?

G. K. Chesterton

54

Who was the British author who wrote works of fantasy, including The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings series, that taught people to long for truth and goodness?

J. R. R. Tolkien

55

Who was the British author who graphically portrayed the horrors of totalitarian state in his novels Animal Farm and 1984?

George Orwell

56

Who was the British journalist who rejected his Fabian socialist background and later embraced Christianity, and reproved the immorality and materialism of the day and exposed the emptiness of modern liberal culture?

Malcolm Muggeridge

57

Who was the British conservative writer, who was Britain's great literary apologist for the Christian Faith whose essays still convince skeptics of the reality of God, and wrote several fantasies (The Chronicles of Narnia, The Screwtape Letters, Perelandra, etc.) that illustrate the battle good and evil and encouraged people to do what was right, according to absolute values?

C. S. Lewis

58

Who was the American writer who promoted conservative values in his works, and several of his works such as "Ash Wednesday," and "Journey of the Magi,' reflected his new Christian life?

T. S. Eliot

59

What was the most ambitious attempt at achieving permanent international peace during the 1920s, which was signed by 62 nations, and renounced war as a means of settling international disputes, and these nations convinced themselves that they had "outlawed" international war?

Paris Peace Act

60

What term refers to the excess of money in circulation which causes the value of money to go down and prices to go up?

Inflation

61

To pay extensive war debt placed upon it, the German government had begun to print large amounts of paper money, creating massive:

Inflation

62

What was the central banking system that controls the nation's money supply under the auspices of the federal government that kept interest rates low, making it easy for businesses and individuals to borrow money?

Federal Reserve System

63

As business prospered in the 1920s, many people bought _______________, investments or shares in some industrial or commercial company, hoping to take advantage of the soaring stock prices?

Stocks

64

What is the term that refers to risky investments for the chance of making a quick profit?

Speculation

65

What is the exact date that is remembered as "Black Tuesday," when the bottom fell out of the stock market, stock prices plunged downward as a record 16 million shares changed hands; the stock market had "crashed"?

October 29, 1929

66

What was October 29, 1929 remembered as, where the bottom fell out of the stock market and the stock market had "crashed"?

"Black Tuesday"