Chapter 12: Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Personality Deck (43):
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personality

unique set of consistent behavioral traits, explains stability of behavior and differences among people in the same situations

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personality trait

tendency to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations

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neuroticism

worried, insecure, self-pitying

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extraversion

sociable, fun-loving, affectionate

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openness to experience

imaginative, variety, independent

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agreeableness

softhearted, trusting, helpful

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conscientiousness

well organized, careful, self-disciplined

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psychodynamic theories

focus on unconscious mental forces

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freud's 3 divisions of personality

id: pleasure principle, biological urges
ego: reality principle, decisions
superego: moral component, social standards

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conscious

what one is aware of

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preconscious

just beneath surface of awareness, easily retrieved

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unconscious

memories, thoughts and desires deep below the surface

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defense mechanisms

largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions

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rationalization

create excuse to justify unacceptable behavior

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repression

burying distressing thoughts in the unconscious

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projection

attributing one's own thoughts feelings or motives to another

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displacement

diverting feelings to another target

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reaction formations

behaving in a way opposite of one's feelings

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regression

reversion to immature behavior

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identifications

forming imaginary alliance with a person/group

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sublimation

channel unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable or admirable behaviors, healthiest method

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psychosexual stages

developmental periods with sexual focus that influence adult personality

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oedipal complex

children develop sexual desires for opposite sex parent and hostility towards same sex parent

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oral stage

1st year, breast to bottle

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anal stage

potty training, could lead to sexual anxiety

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phallic stage

oedipal complex, penis envy

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latency stage

sexuality is latent, age 6-puberty, expanding social contacts

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genital stage

puberty, sexual energy channeled towards other sex

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personal unconscious

repressed or forgotten material

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collective unconscious

latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past

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archetypes

emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meanings

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striving for superiority

universal drive to adapt, improve oneself and master life's challenges

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reciprocal determinism

idea that mental events, external environmental events and overt behavior all influence eachother

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observational learning

responding is influenced by observation of models

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self-efficacy

ability to perform behaviors should lead to expected outcomes

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humanism

perspectives, unique qualities of humans

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self-concept

collection of beliefs about one's own nature, qualities and typical behavior

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self-actualization

need to fulfill one's potential

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terror management theory

explain why people need self-esteem, awareness of death

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mortality salience

degree to which mortality is prominent in the mind

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individualism

personal goals and identification ahead of group

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collectivism

group goals and identification ahead of personal

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projective tests

ask participants to respond to vague stimuli that may reveal personality traits