Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological testing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological testing Deck (28):
1

psychological test

standardized test that measures a sample of someone's behavior, individual differences

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intelligence test

measures general mental ability, potential

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aptitude test

specific types of mental abilities, potential

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achievement test

mastery of a subject

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personality tests

motives, interests, values and attitudes

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percentile score

indicates percentage of people who score at or below the score obtained

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reliability

consistency of a test

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correlation coefficient

numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables

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validity

ability of a test to measure what it is supposed to

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content validity

is content of test representative of the domain it's supposed to cover

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criterion-related validity

estimated by correlating subjects' scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion of the trait assessed by the test

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construct validity

the extent to which evidence shows that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct

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IQ

mental age / age x 100

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factor analysis

correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify clusters of variables

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fluid intelligence

reasoning ability, memory capacity, speed of information processing

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crystallized intelligence

ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving

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mental retardation/intellectual disability

subnormal general mental ability originating before age 18

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gifted

upper 2-3% of IQ distribution

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heritability ratio

an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance

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flynn effect

IQ has steadily increased over generations

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reaction range

genetically determined limits on IQ

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analytical intelligence

abstract reasoning, evaluation, judgement

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practical intelligence

ability to deal with everyday problems, tacit knowledge

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creative intelligence

generate new ideas and deal with novel problems

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appeal to ignorance

no one can prove otherwise

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reification

a hypothetical, abstract concept is given a name and treated as if it were concrete

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convergent thinking

narrowing down a list of alternatives

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divergent thinking

expanding range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions, creativity