Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (34):
1

cognition

mental processes of thinking

2

morphemes

smallest units of meaning, root words, prefixes and suffixes

3

semantics

understanding the meaning of words and word combinations

4

syntax

a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences

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fast mapping

process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure

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overextension

child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than is meant to

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underextension

child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects than is meant to

8

3 month old infants

can distinguish phonemes from all languages

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6-8 months

babbling

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10-13 months

first words

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end of 2nd year

sentences

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telegraphic speech

content words, less critical words are omitted

13

metalinguistic awareness

ability to reflect on the use of language

14

nativist theory

humans are equipped with a language acquisition device that facilitates the learning of a new language

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interactionist theories

both environment and biology play a role

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linguistic relativity

one's language determines one's thought

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phonemes

smallest speech units in a language that can by distinguished

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language

symbols and rules for combining them that can be used to relay messages

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functional fixedness

tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use

20

mental set

people persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past

21

algorithm

a methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternative in the search of a solution to a problem

22

heuristic

a guiding principle or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decision

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incubation effect

new solutions surface for an unsolved problem after not thinking about if for a while

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decision making

evaluating alternatives and making choices among them

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bounded rationality

people make irrational decisions that are less than optimal

26

availability heuristic

basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind

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representativeness heuristic

basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event

28

conjunction fallacy

estimating that the offs of two uncertain events happening together are greater than either happening alone

29

recognition heurisitc

if one option is recognized and the other isn', then the recognized one has higher value

30

gambler's fallacy

the belief that the odds of chance event increase if it hasn't occurred recently

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confirmation bias

the tendency to only seek information that is likely to support one's beliefs and decisions

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framing

how decision issues are posed or how choices are structured

33

loss aversion

losses loom larger than gains of equal size

34

emergentist theory

neural circuits supporting language emerge gradually in response to language-learning experiences