Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Psych 111 > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (66):
1

neurons

individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate and transmit information

2

soma

cell body of neuron, contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells

3

dendrite

parts of the neuron that are specialized to receive information

4

axon

a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles and glands, wrapped in cells of myelin

5

myelin sheath

insulates some axons and speeds up transmission

6

terminal buttons

small knobs that secrete neurotransmitters

7

synapse

a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another

8

glia

glue that provides support to neurons, small but outnumber neurons 10:1, 50% of brain's volume, some can send signals and may contribute to memory

9

Hodgkin and Huxley

studied squid, learned that neural impulse is a complex electrochemical reaction, positive sodium and potassium against negative chloride

10

resting potential

a neuron's stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive, -70 millivolts

11

action potential

brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon

12

absolute refractory period

minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin

13

neurotransmitters

chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another

14

postsynaptic potential (PSP)

a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane

15

number of synapses...

decreases after age 1

16

acetylcholine

Released by motor neurons controlling skeletal muscle, regulation of attention, arousal and memory, Alzheimer's

17

Dopamine

Control of voluntary movement, Cocaine elevates, Parkinsonism Schizophrenia and addiction

18

Norepinephrine

Mood and arousal, cocaine elevates, depression

19

Serotonin

Regulates sleep and wakefulness, deppression OCD and eating disorders

20

GADA

inhibitory transmitter, regulates anxiety and sleep/arousel, valium, Anxiety disorders

21

Glutamene

Excitatory transmitter, learning and memory, Schizophrenia

22

Endorphins

Opiate drugs, pain relief and response to stress, eating behavior

23

agonist

mimics action of neurotransmitter

24

antagonist

opposes action of neurotransmitter

25

monoamines

dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin

26

peripheral nervous system

all nerves (bundles of axons) that lie outside the brain and spinal cord

27

somatic nervous system

nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory receptors

28

afferent nerve fibers

carry information to central nervous system

29

efferent nerve fibers

carry information outward

30

autonomic nerve system

nerves that connect the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands

31

sympathetic division

part of autonomic, mobilizes resources for emergencies

32

parasympathetic

part of autonomic, conserves resources

33

central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

34

electroencephalograph (EEG)

device that monitors electrical activity of the brain over time using recording electrodes attached to the scalp

35

lesioning

destroying a part of the brain

36

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

allows scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain, non-invasive but can't study deep in brain

37

PET, CT and MRI scans

CT shows structure, PET shows function and neurotransmitters, MRI better shows structure

38

male vs. female arousal

men are more stimulated visually than women

39

hindbrain

cerebellum, medulla, pons

40

forebrain

thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebrum

41

cerebrum

largest part of brain, sensing, thinking, learning, emotion, consciousness and voluntary movement

42

corpus callosum

bridge of fibers passing information between hemispheres of brain

43

thalamus

handles incoming and outgoing signals

44

cerebellum

coordinates fine muscle movement, balance

45

reticular formation

carry stimulation for sleep and arousal through brainstem

46

spinal cord

simple reflexes, transmits info between brain and body

47

medulla

unconscious functions

48

pons

sleep and arousal

49

hippocampus

learning and memory, limbic system

50

pituitary gland

regulates other glands

51

hypothalamus

hunger, thirst, temperature control, basic needs

52

limbic system

a loosely connected network of structures located along border between cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas

53

cerebral cortex

folded outer layer of the cerebrum

54

mirror neurons

activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action

55

occipital lobe

visual processing

56

parietal lobe

sense of touch

57

temporal lobe

auditory processing

58

frontal lobe

movement of muscles

59

neurogenesis

formation of new neurons

60

split-brain surgery

corpus callosum cut,

61

left hemisphere

right hand, speach

62

right hemisphere

left hand, puzzles, recognition

63

perceptual asymmetries

left-right imbalances between the cerebral hemispheres in the speed of visual or auditory processing

64

family studies

researchers assess the hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait

65

epigenetics

study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve modifications to DNA sequence

66

ocytocin

regulates reproductive behaviors, hormone from pituitary