Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (47):
1

encoding

forming a memory code

2

storage

maintaing encoded information in memory over time

3

attention

focusing awareness on a narrowed stage of stimuli or events

4

structural encoding

emphasizes the physical structure of a stimulus
(shallowest)

5

phonemic encoding

what a word sounds like

6

semantic encoding

meaning of verbal input
(highest)

7

levels-of-processing theory

deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memories

8

elaboration

linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding

9

dual-coding theory

memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can read to recall

10

self-referent encoding

deciding how or whether information is personally relevant

11

sensory memory

preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time usually only a fraction of a second

12

short-term memory

a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 10-20 seconds

13

chunk

group of familiar stimuli stored as a unit

14

working memory capacity (WMC)

refers to one's ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention

15

long-term memory

an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time

16

flashbulb memories

unusually vivid and detailed recollections of the circumstances in which people learned about momentous, newsworthy events

17

conceptual heirarchy

a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items

18

schema

an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event

19

semantic network

consists of nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts

20

connectionist or parallel distributed processing models (PDP)

assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks, specific memories correspond to specific patterns of activation

21

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

temporary inability to remember something you know with the feeling that it's just out of reach

22

misinformation effect

participants recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event information

23

reality monitoring

the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources or internal sources

24

source monitoring

making attributions about the origins of memories

25

destination memory

remembering who we've told what

26

retention

the proportion of material remembered

27

recall measure of retention

requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues

28

recognition measure of retention

requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options

29

relearning measure of retention

requires participants to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before

30

ineffective encoding

never really learned it

31

decay

forgetting occurs because memory fades with time

32

retroactive interference

can't remember old info because of new info

33

proactive interference

can't remember new info because of old info

34

transfer-appropriate processing

initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention

35

repression

keeping depressing thoughts buried deep in the unconscious

36

long-term potentiation (LTP)

a long lasting increase in neural excitability along a specific neural pathway

37

retrograde amnesia

loss of memories for events that occurred prior to onset of amnesia (trauma)

38

anterograde amnesia

loss of memories that occur after the onset of amnesia (trauma)

39

declarative memory system

handles factual information

40

non-declarative memory system

houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned and emotional responses

41

episodic memory system

chronological or temporally dated recollections of personal experience

42

semantic memory system

general knowledge that is not tied to the time when information was learned

43

prospective memory

remembering to perform actions in the future

44

retrospective memory

remembering events from the past or previously learned information

45

link method

forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together

46

method of loci

taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations

47

hindsight bias

tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out