Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (41):
1

signal-detection theory

depends on intensity, confidence and noise in a system

2

absolute threshhold

the minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect for a specific type of sensory input

3

additive color mixing

formation of colors by superimposing lights, putting more light into the mixture than exists in any one light itself

4

afterimage

image the persists after stimulus is removed, complementary color

5

binocular depth cues

clues about distance based on differing views from two eyes

6

bottom-up processing

in form perception, progression from individual elements to the whole

7

cochlea

fluid-filled tunnel in inner ear that contains receptors for hearing

8

complementary colors

pairs of colors that produce gray tones when added together

9

cones

visual receptors involved in day and color vision

10

farsightedness

close objects appear blury

11

feature analysis

detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a complex form

12

feature detectors

neurons that respond selectively to specific features of more complex stimuli

13

fovea

tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones, vision is best at this spot

14

gustatory system

sensory system for taste, stimuli and soluble chemicals, 4 tastes are sweet sour bitter salty (unami?)

15

inattentional blindness

failure to see visual objects because one's attention is focused elsewhere

16

JND

smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect

17

lens

transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina

18

monocular depth cues

clues about distance based on image from either eye alone

19

nearsightedness

distant objects are blury

20

olfactory system

sensory system for smell, stimuli is chemical substances in the air

21

optic chiasm

point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain

22

optic disk

hole in the retina where optic nerves exit eye, blind spot

23

perceptual constancy

tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input

24

phi phenomenon

the illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession

25

pictorial depth cues

clues about distance can be given in a flat picture

26

psychophysics

the study of how physical stimuli and translated into psychological experience

27

pupil

opening in center of iris, controls amount of light, dilates in the dark

28

retina

neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye, absorbs light, processes images and sends visual information to the back of brain

29

retinal disparity

cue to the depth based on the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different location on the left and right retinas

30

rods

visual receptors that play a key role in night and peripheral vision

31

subliminal perception

the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness

32

subtractive color mixing

formation of colors by removing some wavelengths of light

33

tactile system

sensory system for touch, receptors can register pressure warmth cold and pain

34

top-down processing

in for perception, a progression from the whole to the elements

35

visual agnosi

inability to recognize objects

36

visual system

stimuli is light(electromagnetic wave), wavelength is color, amplitude is brightness, purity is saturation

37

auditory system

sound waves, vibrations of molecules travel through medium, amplitude is loudness, wavelength is pitch, purity is timbre

38

main visual pathway

color, form, contrast, motion

39

second visual pathway

coordination of visual and other sensory input

40

primary visual cortex

in occipital lobe, handles initial processing of visual input

41

receptive fields

collections of rods and cones that funnel signals to specific visual cells in the retina and brain