Chapter 12: Territorial and Economic Expansion 1830-1860 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Territorial and Economic Expansion 1830-1860 Deck (27)
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Manifest Destiny

Expressed the popular belief that the United States had a divine mission to extend its power and civilization across North America
~Enthusiasm for expansion reached a fever pitch in 1840
~Driven by: nationalism, population increase, rapid economic development, technological advances, and reform ideals


Stephan F. Austin

Brought 300 families into Texas
~Started a steady migration of American settlers into the vast frontier territory


General Antonio López de Santa Ana

Made himself dictator of Mexico and abolished that nation's federal system of government
~Insisted on enforcing Mexico's laws in Texas
~Sam Houston and other settlers revolted and declared Texas to be an independent republic, March 1836


Sam Houston

First president of the Republic of Texas (Lone Star Republic)
~Led the initial rebellion against the Mexicans
~Became the "general" of Texas
~Requested for annexation which was put of by various presidents


Aroostook War

A conflict between rival lumbermen along the Maine-Canada border which erupted into open fighting
~AKA: "Battle of the Maps"
~Partially due to the American resentment of the British


Webster-Ashburton Treaty

Declared the end of the Aroostook War
~Negotiated by the US Secretary of State, Daniel Webster, and British ambassador, Lord Alexander Ashburton
~The treaty:
1. Divided the disputed territory between Maine and Canada
2. Settled the Minnesota territory boundary. Left iron rich Mesabi territory to USA


Oregon Territory

America claimed the Oregon Territory based on:
1. The discovery of the Columbia River by Captain Robert Gray in 1792
2. The overland expedition to the Pacific Coast by Meriweather Lewis and William Clark in 1805
3. The fur trading post and fort in Astoria. Oregon established by John Jacob Astor in 1811.


Election of 1844

The major issues revolved around the annexation of Texas
~Split in Democratic party between Martin Van Buren, John C. Calhoun, and the "dark horse" James K. Polk
~Henry Clay was the Whig nominee
~James K. Polk won the election


James K. Polk

The democratic "dark horse" in the Election of 1844
~From Tennessee and protegé of Andrew Jackson
~Committed to the idea of manifest destiny, Polk favored annexation of Texas, the "reoccupation" of the Oregon Territory, and the acquisition of California
~Stood for the slogan, "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
~11th President


Annexation of Texas

John Tyler (10th President) pushed for annexation after Polk was elected
~Tyler persuaded both houses of Congress to pass a joint resolution for annexation
~Polk was left with the problem of dealing with Mexico's reaction to the annexation


"Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"

Referred to the line of latitude that marked the border between the Oregon Territory and Alaska
~Rather than fighting for all of Oregon, Polk was willing to settle for just the Southern half


Mexican-American War (1846-1847)

Caused by the annexation of Texas and other factors
~Polk sent John Slidell as his special envoy to Mexico to:
1. Persuade Mexico to sell the California and New Mexico territories to the United States
2. Settle a dispute concerning the Mexico-Texas border
~Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to move his army toward the Rio Grande across territory claimed by Mexico
~Mexican army crossed the Rio Grande, captured an army patrol and killed 11 of them
~Polk called for war, and despite Whig protests, Congress approved the war


John Slidell

The President's (Polk) special envoy dispatched to Mexico City to:
1. Persuade Mexico to sell the California and New Mexico territories
2. settle a dispute concerning the Mexico-Texas border
~Slidell's mission failed on both counts


General Zachary Taylor

Eventual 12th president
~Led his army across the Rio Grande in 1846
~Later, led a force of 6,000 men to drive the Mexican army from Texas, crossed the Rio Grande into Mexico and won a major victory at Buena Vista


John C. Fremont

Declared California to be an independen republic
~Backed by only several dozen soldiers, a few navy officers, and American civilians who had recently settled in California. He overthrew the Mexican rule in Northern California
~Called the Bear Flag Republic


Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

AKA Mexican cession (1848). The treaty negotiated in Mexico by American diplomat Nicholas Trist provided that:
1. Mexico would recognize the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas
2. The US would take possession of the former Mexican provinces of California and New Mexico
~For these territories the US would pay $15 million and assume the claims of American citizens against Mexico


Wilmot Proviso

Pennsylvanian congressman David Wilmot proposed a solution to the controversial Mexican lands
~Forbade slavery in any of the new territories acquired from Mexico
~Passed House twice; Senate shut it down


Ostend Manifesto

Franklin Pierce (14th president) dispatched three American diplomats to Ostend, Belgium, where they secretly negotiated to buy Cuba from Spain
~The Ostend Manifesto that the diplomats drew up was leaked to the press in the US
~provoked an angry reaction to the anti-slavery members of Congress
~Pierce forced to drop the scheme


Franklin Pierce

14th president of the United States
~had pro-southern policies
~sent a dispatch to Ostend,Belgium to negotiate the purchase of Cuba


William Walker

Southern adventurist, he tried unsuccessfully to take Baja California from Mexico
~Leading a force mostly of Southerners, he took over Nicaragua
~His grandiose scheme to develop a pro-slavery Central American empire, collapsed when a coalition of Central American countries invaded and defeated him


Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)

Another American ambition (building a canal through Central America) led to Britain and America checking each other and led to the treaty
~The treaty included that:
1. Neither country would attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal route in Central America
~Continued in full force until the end of the century


Gadsden Purchase

President Pierce succeeded in adding a strip of land to the American southwest for a railroad
~Now present day Arizona and New Mexico (southern part)


California Gold Rush

The discovery of gold in California in 1848 which set off the first of many migrations into the mineral rich mountains of the West
~Followed by the gold or silver rushes in Colorado, Nevada, the Black Hills of the Dakotas, and other western territories
~Brought tens of thousands of men and later women into the western mountains
~California's population grew from 14,000 to 380,000


Elias Howe

Invented the sewing machine
~Took the production of clothing out of the home and into the factory


Samuel Morse

Invented an electric telegraph
~Sped up communication throughout the country


Illinois Central Railroad

1850: The US government granted 2.6 million acres of federal land to build it
~Spread from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico


Panic of 1857

Ended the mid-century economic boom with financial panic
~A serious drop in prices especially for mid-western farmers
~Increased unemployment in Northern cities
~South less effected due to the fact that cotton prices remained high