Chapter 10: The Age of Jackson 1824-1844 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: The Age of Jackson 1824-1844 Deck (20)
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Party Nominating Conventions

Replacement of state legislatures picking candidates
~Party politicians and voters would gather in a large meeting hall to nominate the party's candidate
~More open to popular participation, hence more democratic


Spoils System

Dispensing government jobs in return for party loyalty
~Promoted government corruption
~Andrew Jackson believed in appointing people to federal jobs strictly according to whether they had actively campaigned for the Democratic Party
~Any previous holder of the office who was not a Democrat was fired and replaced by a loyal Democrat


"The Corrupt Bargain"

Talks about the election of 1824 and the election of John Quincy Adams
~Jackson won by popular vote but lacked electoral college votes
~Henry Clay used his influences in the House to provide John Quincy Adams with enough votes to win the election
~After President Adams appointed Henry Clay into the Secretary of State position, Jackson and his followers were positive that popular vote had been failed by political maneuvers


Henry Clay

Republican party nominee for the Election of 1824
~Used his influence to get John Quincy Adams elected
~Became Secretary of State under his presidency


Tariff of 1828

Passed towards the end of John Quincy Adams' presidency
~Satisfied Northern manufacturers but alienated Southern planters
~Southerners denounced it as a "tariff of abominations"


Indian Removal Act (1830)

Forced the resettlement of many thousands of Native Americans
~By 1835 most eastern tribes were moved westward
~Created the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1836 to help the resettled tribes


Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)

When the Cherokees' challenged Georgia's right to force them to move westward
~Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee Nation was not a foreign nation with the right to sue in a federal court


Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

A second case with representation of the Cherokee Nation
~Supreme Court ruled that the laws of Georgia had no force within the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation


"Trail of Tears"

1838, the Cherokee Nation was forced by the US Army to leave Georgia, the hardships on the Trail of Tears were so great 4,000 Cherokees died on westward trek


Nullification Crisis

The South Carolinan legislature decided that the Tariff of Abominations was unconstitutional
~Nullification Theory: Each state had the right to decide whether to obey a federal law
~President Jackson came up with his own; declared his own position, "our federal Union, must be preserved"


John C. Calhoun

First Vice President to Andrew Jackson
~Proposed the idea of Nullification Theory
~Later resigned from office due to the Peggy Eaton affair


Proclamation of the People of South Carolina

Passed by President Jackson to deal with the possible nullification and secession of South Carolina
~Stated that nullification and disunion were treason


Nicholas Biddle

President of the Bank of the United States
~Ran it effectively
~Sue to his arrogance, contributed to the suspicion that the bank abused its powers and served the intrests of the wealthy


Whig Party

A new political party, Henry Clay's supporters, that resembled the dead Federalist Party
~Favored Clay's American System, opposed immorality, vice and crime which some blamed on immigrants
~New Englanders, residents of mid-Atlantic and upper-mid-Western states, Protestants of old English stock, middle class urban professionals


Roger Taney

Secretary of Treasury under President Jackson
~Aided Jackson in "killing" the national bank
~Transferred funds to various state banks


"Pet Banks"

Various state banks that Taney transferred money to after Jackson "killed" the national bank
~Did this by vetoing recharter and stopping funds
~This was the nickname given by Jackson's critics


Specie Circular

Jackson's attempt to check the inflationary trend
~A presidential order
~It required that all future purchases of federal lands be made in gold and silver rather than in paper bank notes
~Bank notes lost their value and land sales plummeted
~Panic of 1837 AKA economic depression


Panic of 1837

An economic depression during Jackson's presidency
~Bank notes lost value and land sales plummeted
~Many banks shut down


Martin Van Buren

Eighth president of the United States, Democratic Party
~Inherited the Panic of 1837 from President Jackson
~Was Vice President to Andrew Jackson


"Log Cabin and Hard Cider" Campaign of 1840

The Whig campaign to end the Jacksonian era of Presidency
~Used William Henry "Tippecanoe" Harrison as their likeable candidate
~To symbolize Harrison's humble beginnings they put log cabins on wheels and traveled from city to city
~Passed out hard cider to voters as well as hats
~Name calling as a propaganda device: Martin Van Ruin