Chapter 11: Society, Culture, and Reform 1820-1860 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Society, Culture, and Reform 1820-1860 Deck (41)
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Antebellum Period

The period before the Civil War
~A diverse mix of reformers dedicated themselves to various types of reform


The Second Great Awakening

The reaction against liberalism and rationalism
~Allowed for the creation of various new churches such as the Church of Jesus Christ and the Latter day Saints


Charles Grandison Finney

A Presbyterian minister started a series of revivals in upstate New York
~Preached sermons based on emotions as opposed to reason
~Preached that all were free to be saved through faith and hard work


"Burned Over District"

The Western New York region
~Had frequent "hell and brimstone" revivals


Baptists and Methodists

Popularity for this grew in the South and on the Western frontier
~The largest Protestant denominations in the country
~Preached at outdoor revivals



Started by the preacher William Miller on the belief that the world would end at the second coming of Christ
~Predicted that day to be October 21, 1844
~Disappointment ensued on the fact that it didn't end
~Turned into the Seventh Day Adventists


William Miller

Started the Millenialist Church
~Predicted the end of the world to be October 21, 1844


Church of Jesus Christ and the Latter Day Saints

Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830
~Based their religion on the Book of Mormon
~Moved from New York to Ohio to Missouri to Illinois the finally to the Great Salt Lake Basin
~Practiced polygamy


Joseph Smith

Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ and the Latter Day Saints
~Murdered in Illinois by a mob


Brigham Young

Took control of the Church of Jesus Christ and the Latter Day Saints
~Moved them from Illinois to the Great Salt Lake Basin



New wave of writing which emphasized a connection with nature
~Questioned the doctrines of established churches
~Challenged materialism in the country
~Very individualistic


Ralph Waldo Emerson

The best known transcendentalist who was an author
~His essays expressed the individualistic mood of the period
~His essays and poems argued for self-reliance, independent thinking, and the primacy of spiritual matters over material ones
~He became a leading critic of slavery, and a supporter of the Union


Henry David Thoreau

Another transcendentalist writer
~Lived in the same town as Emerson
~Conducted a two year experiment where he lived by himself outside town
~He used observations of nature to discover essential truths about life
~"Walden" and "On Civil Disobedience" are some of his best works


Brook Farm

A community of people living with the transcendentalist ideal
~Founded by George Ripley in 1841 as an experiment in Massachusetts
~His goal was to achieve "a more natural union between intellectual and manual labor"
~Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Theodore Parker, and Nathaniel Hawthorne all lived there at some point
~A bad fire and heavy debts ended it
~Brook Farm is remembered for its atmosphere of artistic creativity and an innovative school that attracted the sons and daughters of New England's intellectually elite



One of the earliest religious communal movements
~Held property in common
~Kept women and men strictly separate forbidding and sexual relations
~They shook in the presence of God


New Harmony

The secular (nonreligious) experiment in New Harmony, Indiana
~A utopian/socialist community to provide an answer to the problems of inequity and alienation caused by the Industrial Revolution
~Experiment failed due to financial problems and disagreements among members


Robert Owen

Created the experiment at New Harmony, Indiana
~Welsh industrialist and reformer


Oneida Community

A cooperative community that became highly controversial
~Dedicated to an ideal of perfect social and economic equality
~Members shared property
~Critics attacked the Oneida Community of planned reproduction and communal child rearing as a sinful experiment in "free love"


John Humphrey Noyes

Founder of the Oneida Community
~Allowed for the Oneida Community to make money by selling silverware


Fourier Phalanxes

The idea of the French socialist Charles Fourier
~The communal living areas where people shared work and living quarters
~Quickly disintegrated because Americans proved to be to individualistic


American Temperance Society

Protestant ministers and others concerned with the high rate of alcohol consumption and the side effects of excessive drinking founded it
~Using moral arguments the society tried to persuade drinkers not just to moderate their drinking but to take a pledge to total alcoholic abstinence


Dorothea Dix

A former school teacher from Massachusetts instigated reforms in mental hospitals
~Dedicated her life to improving conditions for the mentally disturbed


Thomas Gallaudet

Founded a school for the deaf


Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe

Founded a school for the blind


Horace Mann

A leading advocate of the public school movement
~Was secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education
~Worked for improved schools, compulsory attendance for all children, longer school year, and increased teacher preparation


William Holmes McGuffey

A Pennsylvania teacher created a series of elementary textbooks
~McGuffey readers instilled the virtues of hard work, punctuality, and sobriety


Cult of Domesticity

The idealized view of women as moral leaders in the home and educators of the children


Sarah and Angelina Grimke

Began the women's rights movement in America
~Objected male opposition to their antislavery activities
~Sarah wrote "Letter on the Condition of Women" and "The Equality of the Sexes"


Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Another pair of women who advocated women's rights
~This occurred after they had been barred from speaking at an antislavery convention


Seneca Falls Convention (1848)

The leading feminists met at Seneca Falls, New York
~The first women's rights convention in American history
~Issued a document closely modeled after the Declaration of Independence: "Declaration of Sentiments" declared that "all men and women are created equal"