Chapter 8: Nationalism and Economic Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Nationalism and Economic Development Deck (27)
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Era of Good Feelings

Talks about the years that Monroe was in office
~Era marked by spirit of nationalism, optimism, and good will
~This was due to the death of the Federalist party
~Was not completely without ill feelings, no political unity, Democratic-Republican party held two factions


James Monroe

Fifth president of the United States, from Virginia and fought in the Revolutionary War
~Popular vote for James Monroe was cast by younger Americans
~Young voters had different concerns than that of the founding fathers: expansion westward, rather than European affairs


Tariff of 1816

The first protective tariff in US history, passed by Congress
~Raised the tariff rates on certain goods for the purpose of protecting US manufacturers from ruin
~Due to the new factories made to lessen the value of British goods on the American market during peacetime
~Americans feared the dumping by the British of their goods on the American market would take away American business


Henry Clay's American System

Proposed by Kentucky's Henry Clay (in the House) to advance the nation's economic growth and had three points:
1. Protective tariffs
2. A national bank
3. Internal manufacturing
~Argued that protective tariffs would promote American manufacturing and raise revenue to build a system of federally constructed roads and canals
~A national bank would keep systems running smoothly by providing a national currency


Panic of 1819

Fractured the Era of Good Feelings with the first major financial panic since he Constitution had been ratified
~Mainly the fault of the Second Bank of the United States which had tightened credit in order to control inflation
~Many state banks closed, the value of money fell, there were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt
~Most severe in the West, called for land reforms and opposition to debtors prisons


John Marshall

Still reigned as the Federalist Supreme Court Chief Justice
~Still made decisions that favored Federalist agenda
~Republicans voted into the Supreme Court sided with Marshall due to the idea that the Constitution called for a strong and flexible central government


Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

The first time the Supreme Court declared a state law to be unconstitutional and invalid
~Case involved land fraud in Georgia
~Marshall concluded that a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract


Martin v. Hunter's Lease (1816)

The Supreme Court established the principle that it had jurisdiction over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights


Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

The Marshall Court argue that the state law that altering contracts for private corporations could not be done by the state
~Involved a law of New Hampshire that changed Dartmouth College from a privately chartered school to a public school


McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

Using a loose interpretation of the Constitution, Marshall ruled that the federal government had the implied power to create a national bank
~Maryland attempted the collection of a tax on the Second Bank of the United States
~A state could not tax a federal institution
~Federal laws are supreme over state laws


Cohens v. Virginia (1821)

The Cohens were convicted of selling Washington D.C. lottery tickets in Virginia
~Marshall's court upheld the conviction
~Established the principle that the Supreme Court could review a state court's decisions involving any of the powers of the federal government


Gibbons v. Ogden (1821)

Marshall established the federal government's broad control of interstate commerce
~New York granted a monopoly to a steamboat company which conflicted with a charter authorized by Congress


Tallmadge Amendment

Representative James Tallmadge from New York ignited the debate about Missouri question (impending statehood) by proposing an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission. Called for
1. Prohibiting the further introduction of slaves into Missouri
2. Requiring the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at age 25
~If adopted, the amendment would have led to the gradual elimination of slavery in Missouri
~Defeated in the Senate, Southerners saw it as the first step of the North to abolish slavery in all states


Missouri Compromise (1820)

Henry Clay won majority support for three bills, when combined represented compromise
1. Missouri was to be admitted as a slave holding state
2. Maine was to be admitted as a free state
3. In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36°30' slaves were prohibited


Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)

Britain and America agreed to a major disarmament pact
~Limited naval armament on the Great Lakes
~Placed limits on border fortifications


Treaty of 1818

Another treaty between Britain and America which continued the improved relations by
1. Shared fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland
2. Joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for 10 years
3. The settling of the Northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel


Andrew Jackson

Seventh president of the United States, served in the military
~Commissioned by the President (Monroe at the time) to stop the raiders in Florida (Seminole Indians) and if necessary, pursue them
~Jackson carried out his orders and went beyond his instructions
~Destroyed Seminole villages, hanged two Seminole chiefs, drove out the Spanish governor, and hanged two Britons


Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)

Spain warned that the US would seize Florida
~Sold it to the US for $5 million dollars
~Americans ceded their claims in Spanish Texas


Monroe Doctrine

A means to protect the Western Hemisphere from monarchial means
~"as asserted in which the rights and intrests of the US are involved that the American continents by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintained are not considered as subject for future colonization by any European powers"
~Declared that the US was opposed to attempts by a European power to interfere in the affairs of any republic in the Western Hemisphere


National (Cumberland) Road

A paved highway and a major route to the west
~Extended more than a thousand miles from Maryland to Illinois
~It was begun in 1811 and completed in the 1850s
~Used both federal and state money with the different states receiving ownership of segments of the highway


Erie Canal

Completed in New York in 1825
~Important in linking Western farms with the Eastern cities
~Due to the economic benefits of the canal, other states rushed to build their own
~Led to lower food prices in the East


Robert Fulton

Built the first steam powered boat, the Clermont, up the Hudson River
~Led to commercially operated steamboats to show off the nation's rivers


Eli Whitney

American inventor
~Invented the cotton gin in 1793
~Devised a system for making rifles out of interchangeable parts then became the basis for mass production methods in new Northern cities


Samuel Slater

Emigrant from Britain and brought the British secrets for the FACTORY SYSTEM


Lowell System

Recruited young farm women and housed them in company dormitories
~Widely imitated in the 1830s


Cotton Gin

Allowed for cotton plantations in the South to be able to produce more cotton
~They could easily separate the cotton fiber from the seeds
~Southern planters found cotton more profitable than tobacco and indigo
~Used their profits to buy more slaves


Market Revolution

Farmers fed city workers who then provided them with an array of mass produced goods. Standard of living rose
~Single women typically worked in domestic fields or teaching
~Once married women left their jobs
~Economic and social mobility
~Gap between very poor and very wealthy deepened