Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic 1787-1800 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic 1787-1800 Deck (34)
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Annapolis Convention

A conference held in Washington's home to overcome problems
~Representatives from 4 states: Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania
~Eventually agreed to meet again in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation


Philadelphia Convention

Called upon all 13 colonies/states to send delegates to Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation
~Only Rhode Island backed out


James Madison

The father of the Constitution
~Worked on specific articles in the Constitution


Alexander Hamilton

Worked on fashioning specific articles of the Constitution
~Took control of the Philadelphia Convention


New Jersey Plan

The plan of representation proposed by the smaller states which favored them


Virginia Plan

The plan of representation proposed by the larger states which favored them


Connecticut/Great Compromise

Provided for a two-house Congress
~Each state would have equal representation in the Senate
~In a larger body, the House of Representatives, each state would be represented according to the size of its population


3/5 Compromise

The way that the government resolved how to count slaves
~Each slave was counted as 3/5's of a person (for tax and representative purposes)


Commercial Compromise

A way by/attempt by Congress to raise revenue
~Allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign tariffs on foreign imports
~Prohibited placing taxes on any exports


Electoral College

Electors assigned to each state
~Electors #'s equal to the number of state's representatives and senators
~Instituted because the delegates at Philadelphia feared that too much democracy could lead to mob rule



A group who supported a strong federal government
~Tended to be most numerous along the Atlantic Coast and in large cities
~George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
~A stronger federal government was needed to maintain order as well as preserve the Union


Bill of Rights

The most argued for by the Antifederalists and argued against by the Federalists
~Antifederalists: argued that Americans had fought the Revolutionary War to escape the tyranny of a central government, and that the Articles were a tyrannical piece
~Federalists: argued that since members of Congress would be elected by the people and that they did notnjeed to be protected against themselves
~Had 10 Amendments:
1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
2. Right to bear arms
3. People can refuse to quarter soldiers
4. Government cannot carry out unreasonable searches or seizures of people's property
5. Everyone has the right to a trial, but no double jeopardy
6. Right to a public trial
7. Right to a trial by jury
8. Criminals be treated fairly
9. Any rights not specified are protected
10. All powers not delegated to the federal government belonged to the states and the people


Anti Federalists

Those who opposed a strong Federal Government
~Small farmers and western settlers
~George Madison, Madison Henry , James Winthrop, John Hancock, George Clinton
~A stronger central government would destroy the work of the Revolution, limit democracy, and restrict state's rights



Advisors with whom the President meets with regularly to discuss major policy issues
~4 groups: Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury, Secretary of War, and Attorney General
~In Washington's Presidency:
1. S.S: Thomas Jefferson
2. S.T: Alexander Hamilton
3. S.W: Henry Knox
4. A.G: Edmund Randolph


Judiciary Act (1789)

One of Congress' first laws
~Established a Supreme Court with one chief justice and five associate justices
~The highest court
~Empowered to rule on the constitutionality of decisions made by state courts
~Provided for a system of 13 district courts and three circuit courts of appeals


Assumption of Debt

A proposal issued by Hamilton in order to dramatically enhance the legitimacy of the new central government
~The federal government should pay off all the Confederation (state) debts at full value
~To raise money to pay off the debts, Hamilton would issue new securities bonds
~Investors who had purchased these public securities could make enormous profits when the time came for the United States to pay off these new debts


Excise Tax

A tax that is measured by the amount of business done
~To raise enough revenue to pay the government's debts Hamilton persuaded Congress to pass excise taxes


Bank of the United States

Chartered by the federal government but was privately owned
~As a major shareholder of the bank, the federal government could print paper currency and use federal deposits to stimulate business


Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)

President Washington believed out young nation was not strong enough to engage in a European War
~He issued a proclamation of US neutrality in the conflict
~Caused Thomas Jefferson to resign due to disagreement


Citizen Edmond Genêt

An objection to Washington's policy in neutrality by the French minister to the US
~Broke all the normal rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to the American people to support the French cause
~His conduct was so outrageous that even Jefferson approved of Washington's request to the French government that they repeal him


Jay's Treaty (1794)

Chief Justice John Jay was sent to Britain regarding Britain's offensive practice of searching and seizing American ships and impressing seamen into the British Navy
~Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US Western frontier
~Said nothing about British seizures of American merchants
~Very unpopular, however it kept the United States at peace


Pickney's Treaty (1795)

A treaty made by Spanish minister Thomas Pickney
~Spain agreed to open the lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to American trade
~The right of deposit was granted to Americans so that they could transfer cargoes in New Orleans without paying duties to the Spanish government


Battle of Fallen Timbers

What happened after the US found that the British were supplying the Native Americans with arms and encouraging them to attack the Americans
~Sent General Anthony Wayne to the Native American tribes in Northwestern Ohio


Whiskey Rebellion (1794)

In Western Pennsylvania the refusal of a group of farmers to pay the federal excise tax on whiskey seemed to pose a major challenge to the viability of the US government under the Constitution
~Rather than pay the tax, they defended their "liberties" by attacking the revenue collectors
~Some applauded the military action taken by Washington
~Among Westerners this was widely resented


Public Land Act (1796)

Established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at a reasonable price
~Allowed for:


Federalists (political party)

A party whose strength was greatest in Northeast and whose political philosophy favored the growth of the federal government
~John Adams and Alexander Hamilton
~Loose interpretation of the Constitution and a strong central government
~Pro British foreign policy
~Large peacetime army and navy
~Aid businesses, national bank, tariffs
~Mostly Northern businessmen and large landowners



A party whose supporters were primarily in the Southern states and on the Western frontier and whose political philosophy favored a small central government
~Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
~Strict interpretation of the Constitution and weak central government
~Pro French foreign policy
~Small peacetime army and navy
~Favored agriculture, no national bank, and opposed tariffs
~Mostly skilled workers, small farmers, and plantation owners


John Adams

The Federalist's candidate for 2nd President of the United States
~Beat Thomas Jefferson by 3 electoral votes


XYZ Affair

Americans were angered by the fact that US merchant ships were being seized by French warships and privateers
~Adams sent a delegation to Paris to negotiate with the French government
~French ministers Monsieurs X, Y, and Z requested bribes in order to enter into negotiations
~American delegates refused
~Many Americans were infuriated and called for war with France, John Adams sent new ministers


Quasi-War with France

An undeclared war fought mostly between the United States and France


Alien and Sedition Acts

Federalist Acts that restricted their political opponents the Democratic-Republicans
(~Naturalization Act: Increased the number of years required for immigrants to qualify for US Citizenship from 5 to 14 years [most immigrants voted Democratic-Republican])
~Alien Acts: Authorized the President to deport any aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in times of war
~Sedition Acts: Made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize the President or Congress and imposed heavy penalties for editors who violated the law


Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Republican leaders challenged the Alien and Sedition Acts
~Kentucky's legislature adopted a resolution written by Thomas Jefferson
~Virginia's legislature adopted a resolution written by James Madison
~Declared that the states had entered into a "compact" in forming the national government; if any act of the Federal government broke the compact, a state could nullify the federal law


Election of 1800

Swept Federalists from power in both the executive and legislative branches due to Adams' unpopular presidency
~Electors cast their ballots for two Republicans, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
~Jefferson won the election


"Revolution of 1800"

The passing of power from one political party to another without violence
~The change of Federalist power to Democratic-Republicans