Chapter 21: The Progressive Era 1901-1918 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: The Progressive Era 1901-1918 Deck (47)
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The prevailing philosophy of romantic transcendentalism in America
~It enabled them to challenge fixed notions that stood in the way of reform


Frederick Taylor

Started the scientific management system
~Discovered ways of organizing people in an efficient manner


Lincoln Steffens

Wrote "The Shame of the Cities" (1904). Muckraker
~Caused a sensation by describing in detail the corrupt deals that characterized big city politics from Philadelphia to Minneapolis


Theodore Dreiser

Wrote "The Financier" and "The Titan". Muckraker
~Portrayed the advance and ruthlessness of an industrialist


Ida Tarbell

Owned a magazine called 'The History of the Standard Oil Company'
~Muckraking magazine


Jacob Riis

Photojournalist who documented articles on tenement life
~Published "How the Other Half Lives" (1890)


Australian Ballot

Ballots printed by the state and required voters to mark their choices secretly within the privacy of a curtained booth
~Stopped political party corruption concerning voting


Direct Primary

The new system for bypassing politicians and placing the nomination process directly in the hands of the voters
~Method for nominating party candidates by majority vote


Robert La Folette

Progressive governor of Wisconsin
~Introduced the direct primary system


17th Amendment

Requires that all U.S. senators be elected by popular vote
~Adopted in 1913 by the federal government



Method by which voters could compel the legislature to consider a bill



A method that allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws printed on the ballot



Enabled voters to remove a corrupt or unsatisfactory politician from office by majority vote before that official's term had expired


Commission Plans

Voters elected the heads of city departments (fire, police, and sanitation) not just the mayor


Theodore Roosevelt

Became president after President McKinley's assassination
~Progressive president
~Responsible for the "square deal" as well as many other reforms


"The Square Deal"

The deal that favored neither business nor laborer, but both
~Worked on a compromise that helped both parties
~Started by Theodore Roosevelt


Anthracite Coal Mine Strike (1902)

On coal, many Americans feared that they would freeze that winter
~Roosevelt stepped in with is "Square Deal"


Elkins Act (1903)

Gave the ICC greater authority to stop railroads from granting rebates to favored customers


Hepburn Act (1906)

The commission (ICC) could fix "just and reasonable" rates for railroads


"The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair

A muckraking book that described in horrifying detail the conditions in Chicago stockyards and the meat packing industry
~Led to improvements by Congress enacting two regulatory laws: The Pure Food and Drug Act and The Meat Inspection Act


Meat Inspection Act (1906)

Provided that federal inspectors visit meat packing plants to ensure that they met minimum standards of sanitation


Newland Reclamation Act (1902)

A law providing money from the sale of public land for irrigation projects in Western States


Pinochet-Ballinger Controversy

When Chief of the Forrest Service, Gifford Pinochet criticized Secretary of the Interior, Richard Ballinger
~Taft stood by his cabinet member and fired Pinochet for insubordination
~Conservatives applauded, Progressives protested


William Howard Taft

Republican nominee for president after Roosevelt refused nomination
~Continued Roosevelt's Progressive policies


Mann-Elkins Act (1910)

Gave the ICC the power to suspend new railroad rates and oversee telephone, telegraph and cable companies


16th Amendment

Gave the U.S. government to collect an income tax
~Approved by Progressives
~At first, the tax only applied to the wealthy
~Originally suggested by e Populists


Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)

Raised the tariff on most imports
~Angered Progressives in the Republican party


Eugene Debs

One of the founders of the socialist party
~Former railroad union leader, jailed for Pullman Strike
~Presidential nominee in 5 elections


Election of 1912

Dominated by reform efforts
~President Taft renominated, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Eugene Debs
~Came down to a battle between Roosevelt and Wilson
~Wilson won 435 electorals


Bull Moose Party

Nickname given to the new Progressive party
~Roosevelt claimed he was as strong as a Bull Moose


New Nationalism

Roosevelt's basis for his campaign
~More government regulation of business and unions, women's suffrage, and more social welfare programs


New Freedom

Wilson's basis for his campaign
~Limit both big business and big government, reform by ending corruption, and revival of competition by supporting small business


Underwood Tariff (1913)

Substantially lowered tariffs for the first time in over 50 years
~Included graduated income tax rate from 1-6%


Federal Reserve Act (1914)

Americans use Federal Reserve Notes (dollar bills) to purchase goods and services


Clayton Anti Trust Act (1914)

Generally strengthened the provisions in the Sherman Anti Trust Act for breaking up monopolies
~Contained a clause for exempting unions from being prosecuted as trusts


Federal Trade Commission

The new regulatory agency
~Empowered to investigate and take action against any "unfair trade practice" in every industry except banking and transportation


Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)

12 regional banks established to provide farm loans at low interest rates


Child Labor Act

Prohibited the shipment in interstate commerce of goods manufactured by children under the age of 14
~Supreme Court found this unconstitutional


Niagara Movement

A program of protest and action aimed at securing equal rights for blacks
~Started by W.E.B. Du Bois at Niagara Falls


Booker T. Washington

Intellectual who argued that blacks need for education and economic progress were of utmost importance
~Said that only after establishing a secure economic base could African Americans hope to realize their other goal of political and social equality


W.E.B. Du Bois

A distinguished scholar and writer. Criticized Washington's (Booker T.) approach and demand equal rights for African Americans
~Argued that political and social rights were a prerequisite to economic advancement



National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
~Mission: to abolish all forms of segregation and increase educational opportunities for African American children
~Started by W.E.B Du Bois


Carrie Chapman Catt

President or the NAWSA group
~Argued for the vote as the broadening of democracy, which would empower women, thus enabling them to more actively care for their families in an industrial society



National American Women's Suffrage Association
~Headed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony taken over by Carrie Chapman Catt
~Fought for equal rights for women and the right to vote


National Women's Party

A more militant approach to gaining the vote, started by Alice Paul
~Hunger strikes, pickets, and parades
~Focused on winning the support of Congress and the President for an amendment to the constitution
~Broke from NAWSA


19th Amendment (1920)

Guarantees a women's right to vote in all elections at the local, state, and national level


League of Women Voters

Organized by Carrie Chapman Catt
~A civic organization dedicated to keeping voters informed about the candidates and the issues