Chapter 21: The Progressive Era 1901-1918 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: The Progressive Era 1901-1918 Deck (47):
1

Pragmatism

The prevailing philosophy of romantic transcendentalism in America
~It enabled them to challenge fixed notions that stood in the way of reform

2

Frederick Taylor

Started the scientific management system
~Discovered ways of organizing people in an efficient manner

3

Lincoln Steffens

Wrote "The Shame of the Cities" (1904). Muckraker
~Caused a sensation by describing in detail the corrupt deals that characterized big city politics from Philadelphia to Minneapolis

4

Theodore Dreiser

Wrote "The Financier" and "The Titan". Muckraker
~Portrayed the advance and ruthlessness of an industrialist

5

Ida Tarbell

Owned a magazine called 'The History of the Standard Oil Company'
~Muckraking magazine

6

Jacob Riis

Photojournalist who documented articles on tenement life
~Published "How the Other Half Lives" (1890)

7

Australian Ballot

Ballots printed by the state and required voters to mark their choices secretly within the privacy of a curtained booth
~Stopped political party corruption concerning voting

8

Direct Primary

The new system for bypassing politicians and placing the nomination process directly in the hands of the voters
~Method for nominating party candidates by majority vote

9

Robert La Folette

Progressive governor of Wisconsin
~Introduced the direct primary system

10

17th Amendment

Requires that all U.S. senators be elected by popular vote
~Adopted in 1913 by the federal government

11

Initiative

Method by which voters could compel the legislature to consider a bill

12

Referendum

A method that allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws printed on the ballot

13

Recall

Enabled voters to remove a corrupt or unsatisfactory politician from office by majority vote before that official's term had expired

14

Commission Plans

Voters elected the heads of city departments (fire, police, and sanitation) not just the mayor

15

Theodore Roosevelt

Became president after President McKinley's assassination
~Progressive president
~Responsible for the "square deal" as well as many other reforms

16

"The Square Deal"

The deal that favored neither business nor laborer, but both
~Worked on a compromise that helped both parties
~Started by Theodore Roosevelt

17

Anthracite Coal Mine Strike (1902)

On coal, many Americans feared that they would freeze that winter
~Roosevelt stepped in with is "Square Deal"

18

Elkins Act (1903)

Gave the ICC greater authority to stop railroads from granting rebates to favored customers

19

Hepburn Act (1906)

The commission (ICC) could fix "just and reasonable" rates for railroads

20

"The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair

A muckraking book that described in horrifying detail the conditions in Chicago stockyards and the meat packing industry
~Led to improvements by Congress enacting two regulatory laws: The Pure Food and Drug Act and The Meat Inspection Act

21

Meat Inspection Act (1906)

Provided that federal inspectors visit meat packing plants to ensure that they met minimum standards of sanitation

22

Newland Reclamation Act (1902)

A law providing money from the sale of public land for irrigation projects in Western States

23

Pinochet-Ballinger Controversy

When Chief of the Forrest Service, Gifford Pinochet criticized Secretary of the Interior, Richard Ballinger
~Taft stood by his cabinet member and fired Pinochet for insubordination
~Conservatives applauded, Progressives protested

24

William Howard Taft

Republican nominee for president after Roosevelt refused nomination
~Continued Roosevelt's Progressive policies

25

Mann-Elkins Act (1910)

Gave the ICC the power to suspend new railroad rates and oversee telephone, telegraph and cable companies

26

16th Amendment

Gave the U.S. government to collect an income tax
~Approved by Progressives
~At first, the tax only applied to the wealthy
~Originally suggested by e Populists

27

Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)

Raised the tariff on most imports
~Angered Progressives in the Republican party

28

Eugene Debs

One of the founders of the socialist party
~Former railroad union leader, jailed for Pullman Strike
~Presidential nominee in 5 elections

29

Election of 1912

Dominated by reform efforts
~President Taft renominated, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Eugene Debs
~Came down to a battle between Roosevelt and Wilson
~Wilson won 435 electorals

30

Bull Moose Party

Nickname given to the new Progressive party
~Roosevelt claimed he was as strong as a Bull Moose

31

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's basis for his campaign
~More government regulation of business and unions, women's suffrage, and more social welfare programs

32

New Freedom

Wilson's basis for his campaign
~Limit both big business and big government, reform by ending corruption, and revival of competition by supporting small business

33

Underwood Tariff (1913)

Substantially lowered tariffs for the first time in over 50 years
~Included graduated income tax rate from 1-6%

34

Federal Reserve Act (1914)

Americans use Federal Reserve Notes (dollar bills) to purchase goods and services

35

Clayton Anti Trust Act (1914)

Generally strengthened the provisions in the Sherman Anti Trust Act for breaking up monopolies
~Contained a clause for exempting unions from being prosecuted as trusts

36

Federal Trade Commission

The new regulatory agency
~Empowered to investigate and take action against any "unfair trade practice" in every industry except banking and transportation

37

Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)

12 regional banks established to provide farm loans at low interest rates

38

Child Labor Act

Prohibited the shipment in interstate commerce of goods manufactured by children under the age of 14
~Supreme Court found this unconstitutional

39

Niagara Movement

A program of protest and action aimed at securing equal rights for blacks
~Started by W.E.B. Du Bois at Niagara Falls

40

Booker T. Washington

Intellectual who argued that blacks need for education and economic progress were of utmost importance
~Said that only after establishing a secure economic base could African Americans hope to realize their other goal of political and social equality

41

W.E.B. Du Bois

A distinguished scholar and writer. Criticized Washington's (Booker T.) approach and demand equal rights for African Americans
~Argued that political and social rights were a prerequisite to economic advancement

42

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
~Mission: to abolish all forms of segregation and increase educational opportunities for African American children
~Started by W.E.B Du Bois

43

Carrie Chapman Catt

President or the NAWSA group
~Argued for the vote as the broadening of democracy, which would empower women, thus enabling them to more actively care for their families in an industrial society

44

NAWSA

National American Women's Suffrage Association
~Headed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony taken over by Carrie Chapman Catt
~Fought for equal rights for women and the right to vote

45

National Women's Party

A more militant approach to gaining the vote, started by Alice Paul
~Hunger strikes, pickets, and parades
~Focused on winning the support of Congress and the President for an amendment to the constitution
~Broke from NAWSA

46

19th Amendment (1920)

Guarantees a women's right to vote in all elections at the local, state, and national level

47

League of Women Voters

Organized by Carrie Chapman Catt
~A civic organization dedicated to keeping voters informed about the candidates and the issues