Chapter 7: The Age of Jefferson 1800-1816 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: The Age of Jefferson 1800-1816 Deck (23)
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Louisiana Purchase

A vast, largely unexplored tract of western land through which the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers flowed
~The New Orleans port was part of the attraction of the Louisiana Territory
~Sent ministers to France to purchase Louisiana for $10 million, France gave Louisiana and the Louisiana Territory for $15 million


Toussaint l'Ouverture

Led a rebellion against Napoleon on the island of Santo Domingo
~Resulted in heavy French losses


Lewis and Clark

A scientific exploration of the Louisiana Territory funded by Congress
~Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark
~Increased geographic and scientific knowledge of previously unexplored territory
~Strengthened US claims to the Oregon Territory


John Marshall

Chief Justice during Jefferson's Presidency
~His decisions played a major role in strengthening the central government


Marbury v. Madison (1803)

The first major case that placed Marshall in conflict
~Jefferson ordered Secretary of State James Madison to not deliver the commissions of the Federalist judges whom Adams appointed in his last days as president
~William Marbury (one o Adams' "midnight appointments") sued for his commission
~Chief Justice ruled that due to the Judiciary Act of 1789, Marbury had a right to his commissions
~Led to judicial review


Aaron Burr

A Republican caucus in 1804 decided not to nominate Aaron Burr for a second term as Vice President
~He then embarked on a series of ventures one of which threatened to break up the Union and another which resulted in the death of Alexander Hamilton



A nickname for "Old Republicans"
~One of the most outspoken groups when criticizing the War of 1812


Barbary Pirates/War with Tripoli

Pirates off the North African Coast that attacked US merchant ships
~First threat in foreign policy during Jefferson's presidency
~Sent a small fleet of US naval vessels to the Mediterranean Sea, which led to sporadic fighting with Tripoli for 4 years
~Not a decisive victory but gained some respect and a measure of protection for US vessel ships in the Mediterranean



The British practice of capturing American sailors and forcing them to serve in the British army


Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

An incident at sea which almost led to war in 1807
~British warship Leopard fired at US warship Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia
~3 Americans were killed and 4 others were impressed into the British army


Embargo Act (1807)

The alternative to war
~Prohibited American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port
~Led to American economic hardship while Britain just looked for new trade partners
~Called for its repeal in 1809
~Even after its repeal Americans still couldn't trade with Britain and France


Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

Provided that Americans could now trade with all nations except Britain and France


Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810)

A bill that reintroduced trade with Britain and France
~Provided that if either Britain or France formally agreed to respect the US neutrality rights at sea, then the US would prohibit trade with that nation's enemy


Tecumseh and the Prophet

Leaders who attempted to defend their lands from further encroachment, both were Native Americans
~Attempted to unite all of the tribes east of the Mississippi
~Rebellion put down by General Harrison


Battle of Tippecanoe

General Harrison destroyed Shawnee headquarters and put an end to Tecumseh's efforts to form an Indian Confederacy


War Hawks

A group of new young Republicans in Congress
~From Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio
~Known as war hawks because of their eagerness for war with Britain
~Quickly gained influence in the House


Henry Clay

One of the primary war hawks from Kentucky
~Argued that war with Britain would be the only way to defend American honor, gain Canada, and destroy Native American resistance on the frontier


John C. Calhoun

Primary war hawk from South Carolina
~Argued that war with Britain would be the only way to defend American honor, gain Canada, and destroy Native American resistance on the frontier


War of 1812

British delays in meeting US demands over neutral rights and political pressures from a war hawk Congress led to the declaration of war by the US
~US hinged victory on Napoleon's success in Europe and US land campaign against Canada
~Led to a US victory due to war weary Britain's stalemate


Star Spangled Banner

About the British attempt to take Baltimore
~Fort McHenry held out after a night's bombardment
~Written by Francis Scott Key


Andrew Jackson/Battle of New Orleans

General who commanded the troops in the South during the War of 1812
~Left a group of frontiersmen, blacks, and Creoles to fight the leftover British troops
~Meaningless victory;it was fought 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was signed


Treaty of Ghent (1814)

The treaty that ended the War of 1812
~The terms were:
1. A halt to fighting
2. The return of all conquered territory to the prewar claimant
3. Recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the US
~Said nothing about the grievances that led to the war
~Britain made no concessions concerning impressment, blockades, other maritime differences


Hartford Convention (1814)

Delegates met from New England to discuss seceding from the Union
~To limit growing Republican power adopted 2/3 vote of both houses for any future declaration of war
~Ended in criticism of the war which weakened Federalists further due to unpatriotic nature