Chapter 1: Exploration, Discovery & Settlement 1492-1700 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Exploration, Discovery & Settlement 1492-1700 Deck (21)
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Protestant Reformation

Reformation in which a group of reformers who decided to break from the Catholic Church in Europe.
~Considered to be the Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican movements
~Allowed for the Catholic Reformation as well
~Also a religious motive for exploration. (ie: Puritans, Pilgrims, etc)


Christopher Columbus

The Italian explorer who sailed for Spain in 1492, discovered the Americas.
~First to establish a major colony in the Americas
~Started the push for European expansionism in the late 15th and early 16th centuries
~Icon for early European exploration during the Renaissance


Columbian Exchange

The trade of plants and animals between the Europeans and the America.
~Allowed for new products to be introduced into the European market
~Allowed for new plants to be grown in Europe as well as an introduction of animals to the Americas
ie: potatoes--->Ireland
horses--->South America


Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

The imaginary line made by the Pope splitting the Americas between Spain and Portugal
~Created a dominant Spanish Empire gifting a lot of the New World's land to Spain
~Gave Brazil to Portugal (the habitable part) and Spain the Brazilian rainforest and the west part of South America.


Hernan Cortés

Spanish explorer who conquered much of Mexico, conquistador
~Conquered and eliminated Aztec Empire through the introduction of disease, dominant technology, and larger armies.
~Enlisted the help of surrounding natives to help decimate the Aztec Empire


Francisco Pizzaro

Spanish explorer who allowed for expansion in South America to occur
~Decimated the Incan Civilization by asserting far superior technologies on the Incans
~Solidified Spanish domination in the world



"conquerors" sent by Spain to explore and conquer the Native people
~Inspired by Christopher Columbus' desire for glory for Spain
~Incas and Pizzarro; Cortés and the Aztecs


Encomienda System

The system where the Spanish enslaved the natives to used as unpaid labor
~Popular in Central and South America as well as the Caribbean
~Large grants of land and Indians given by the King of Spain to individual Spaniards


Spanish Armada

A naval war between Queen Elizabeth I and King Philip II due to Elizabeth not wanting to marry him
~The (at the time) dominant Spanish navy attacked England. Failed due to English Channel conditions
~Ended Spanish dominance in Europe and the New World


Joint-Stock Company

A way found to help funding for founding new colonies
~Pooled savings of people of moderate means and supported trading ventures that seemed potentially profitable
~Allowed for various colonies along the North Atlantic Coast to attract large numbers of English settlers


Virginia Company

A joint stock company chartered by King Charles I
~Established the first permanent English colony in America
~Located at Jamestown in 1607


John Smith

Leader of the Virginians in the early stages of Virginia
~Took forceful leadership role allowing for Virginians to find food and shelter
~Thought very highly of himself


John Rolfe

The man who allowed for an economy to be established in Virginia
~Done through his establishment of a tobacco company
~Developed a new strain of tobacco very popular in England at the time



Wife of John Rolfe
~Powhatan princess John Rolfe kidnapped her and then married her
~Helped relations between the Powhatans and the English


Royal Colony

A colony under control of the Queen or King
~The Virginia company was the first Royal Colony


Puritans/Non Separatists

Part of the Church of England that broke off due to the need to "purify" the Church of England
~Established the New England Colony area



A radical group of Puritans also wanted COMPLETE reform of the Church of England
~Settled the Plymouth colony
~Exiled from England--->Holland--->New World


Mayflower Compact

Signed aboard the Mayflower by the Pilgrims
~Pledged them to make decisions by the will of the majority
~An early form of colonial self government and an early form of a Constitution


John Winthrop

Puritan leader who began the Great Puritan Migration
~Sailed for Massachusetts shore founded Boston and several other towns


Great Puritan Migration

The movement of thousands of Puritans to the New World
~A civil war in England in the 1630's drove 15,000 + settlers to the Massachusetts Bay Colony


House of Burgess

First representative assembly in America
~Represented only white religious males