Chapter 22: World War I 1914-1918 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22: World War I 1914-1918 Deck (32)
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Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Austrian heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
~Assassinated by Serbian terrorists in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914
~His wife assassinated as well


Kaiser Wilhelm I

Monarch of the German government
~Declared war on Russia, an ally of Serbia, as Austria's ally
~Berlin, August 1, 1914


Allied Powers

Included Great Britain, France, and Russia


Central Powers

Included Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire/Turkey



Germans torpedoed (and sank) this British liner, killing 128 Americans
~Wilson sent Germany a strongly worded diplomatic message warning Germany that they would be held accountable if it continued its policy if sinking unarmed ships


Sussex Pledge

The German promise to not sink merchant or passenger ships without giving due warning
~This was after the sinking of the British ship, the Sussex
~Said this to keep the U.S. out of the war


National Defense Act (1916)

Increased to a force of more than 175,000


Charles Evans Hughes

A Supreme Court justice who became the presidential candidate (Election of 1916) of a reunited Republican Party


Zimmerman Telegram

A telegram from the German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico
~Proposed that Mexico ally itself with Germany in return for Germany's pledge to help Mexico recover: Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
~Angered nationalists


Russian Revolution

Russian overthrew of czar's government and proclaimed it a republic


War Industries Board

Set production priorities and established centralized control over raw materials and prices
~Headed by Bernard Baruch, a Wall Street broker


Food Administration

Encouraged American households to eat less meat and bread so that more food could be sent abroad to French and British troops
~Headed by Herbert Hoover, a distinguished engineer


Fuel Administration

Directed efforts to save coal
~Nonessential factories were closed and daylight savings time went into effect for the first time
~Headed by Harry Garfield


National War Labor Board

Helped to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers
~Labor won concessions earlier denied to them: higher wages, eight hour days, and increased union membership
~Headed by former president William Howard Taft


Liberty Bonds

A way for the government to raise money
~Americans put their savings into these federal bonds


Committee on Public Information

Enlisted the voluntary services of artists, writers, vaudeville performers, and movie stars to depict the heroism of the "boys" and the villainy of the kaiser


American Protective League

Mounted the "Hate the Hun" campaign and used vigilante justice in attacking all things German
~Typically nativist groups


Espionage Act (1917)

Provided for imprisonment of up to 20 years for persons who either tried to incite rebellion in armed forces or obstruct operation of the draft


Sedition Act (1918)

Prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the U.S. government


Schenk v. United States (1919)

Upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act
~Supreme Court concluded that the right to free speech could be limited when it represented a "clear and present danger" to public safety


Selective Service Act (1917)

A democratic method for ensuring that all groups in the population were called into service


Great Migration

Migration of various minorities North seeking job opportunities


American Expeditionary Force

Assumed independent responsibility for one segment of the Western front
~Commanded by John J. Pershing


Fourteen Points

A list of war aims by President Wilson
~Some were:
-Recognition of freedom of the seas
-An end to the practice of making secret treaties
-Reduction of national armaments
-An "impartial adjustment of all colonial claims"
-Self determination for the various nationalities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire
-An international peace association


Treaty of Versailles

Treaty that ended the war, signed in France
1. Germany was stripped of its international colonies and must admit guilt for the war and pay its war debts
2. Central Powers' territories were taken by the Allies and new nations were established
3. Signers of the treaty would join an international peace association


The "Big Four"

Leaders from Britain, U.S., Italy, and France who met daily during deliberations
~Worked on a compromise for all four nations


Senator Henry Cabot Lodge

Led the reservationist faction of those opposing the Treaty of Versailles
~Did not want the U.S. in the League of Nations


The Red Scare

Growing fears of socialism fueled by the Communist takeover in Russia in the U.S.
~Anti Communist hysteria


Palmer Raids

A series of unexplained bombings led to a special office to gather information on radicals
~Mass arrests of anarchists, socialists, and labor agitators
~Over 6,000 people arrested


Boston Police Strike (1919)

In protest to the firing of a few police officers who tried to unionize


U.S. Steel Strike (1919)

Strike at the U.S. Steel Corporation
~Federal troops called out and much violence ensued


Chicago Race Riot (1919)

40 people were killed and 500 were injured
~Due to the influx of African Americans and other minorities moving North