Chapter 23: The New Era; The 1920s Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23: The New Era; The 1920s Deck (30):
1

Warren Harding

Republican nominee for president WWI
~Who was elected in a landslide

2

Fordney-McCumber Tariff

Increase in tariff rates during the presidency of Warren Harding

3

Teapot Dome Scandal

Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall caused this during Harding's presidency
~Fall had accepted bribes for granting oil leases near Teapot Dome, Wyoming
~Harding died soon after the scandal broke

4

Calvin Coolidge

Harding's Vice President and successor who won based on popularity in 1919 for Massachusetts governor
~Called "silent cal"
~Re-nominated in 1924 after only a year in office after Harding's death

5

Herbert Hoover

Republican nominee in the Election of 1928 after Coolidge refused to run again
~Served under 3 presidents (Wilson, Harding, and Coolidge)
~Promised to extend "Coolidge prosperity"

6

Alfred Smith

Hoover's Democratic opponent and governor of New York
~Roman Catholic and an opponent of Prohibition, was popular amongst immigrants in the cities
~Many Protestants were openly prejudiced against him

7

Henry Ford

Automobile manufacturer in America
~Perfected the assembly line

8

Open Shop

Means of keeping jobs open to non union workers were practiced by many companies in the 20s

9

Charles Lindbergh

A young aviator who in 1927 thrilled the nation and the entire world by flying nonstop across the Atlantic from Long Island to Paris
~Americans listened to the radio for news of his flight
~Welcomed his return to the U.S. with ticker parades larger than the welcome given to the returning soldiers of WWI

10

Sigmund Freud

Austrian psychiatrist who stressed the role of sexual repression in mental illness

11

Margaret Sanger

Advocate of birth control in the 1920s

12

Flappers

Young women influenced by the movie stars at the time
~Wore dresses hemmed at the knee instead of the ankle
~Bobbed their hair
~Smoked cigarettes
~Drove cars

13

Modernism

A large number of Protestants that defined their faith in new ways
~Caused a range of influences: the changing role of women, the Social Gospel movement, and scientific knowledge
~Took a historical and critical view of certain passages in the Bible and believed they could accept Darwin's Theory of Evolution without abandoning their religious faith

14

Fundamentalism

A group of Protestant preachers in rural areas who condemned the modernists
~Taught that every word of the Bible must be accepted as literally true
~Key point was that creationism explained the origin of all life
~Blamed the liberal view of modernists for the decline of morals

15

"The Lost Generation"

Writers who scorned religion as hypocritical and bitterly condemned the sacrifices of wartime as a fraud perpetuated by money interests were the dominant themes of the leading writers
~F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, Eugene O'Neill
~Took up drinking or moved to Europe

16

Functionalism

Form follows function
~Used by many architects in building a series of skyscrapers with little decor

17

Harlem Renaissance

In 1920, with a population of almost 200,000 Harlem became famous for its concentration of talented actors, artists, musicians and writers
~So promising was their artistic achievement that it was referred to as the Harlem Renaissance
~Saw poets and musicians as well as the UNIA

18

Marcus Garvey

Brought the United Negro Improvement Association from Jamaica into Harlem
~Advocated individual and racial pride for ideas of black nationalism
~His sale of stock in the Black Star Steamship Line led to federal charges of fraud
~He was tried, convicted, jailed and deported

19

United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)

A group who advocated individual and racial pride for African Americans
~Brought from Jamaica to Harlem by Marcus Garvey
~Collapsed when he was deported

20

Scopes Trial

When biology teacher John Scopes of Tennessee taught Darwin's Theory of Evolution and was tried for it in court
~Scopes was directed by the American Civil Liberties Union to teach the theory although it was illegal to do so in Tennessee
~Trial was followed nationwide and Scopes was represented by the famous lawyer, Clarence Darrow
~Fundamentalist William Jennings Bryan testified for the prosecution as an expert on the Bible, however, Darrow made him look like a fool through cross-examination
~Darrow and modernists successfully discredited fundamentalism

21

Clarence Darrow

Famous lawyer who represented John Scopes
~Thoroughly discredited fundamentalism in his defense of John Scopes

22

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages including: liquors, wines, and beer
~Led the Prohibition era as well as an era where temperance police ran rampant
~Also led to an era of defiance
~People drank at home, as well as at at speakeasies where bootleg (smuggled liquor) was sold
~People paid off officials, even President Harding served liquor to guests

23

Al Capone

A Chicago gangster who fought for control of the bootlegging trade

24

21st Amendment

Repealed the 18th Amendment

25

Quota Act of 1921

Limited immigration to 3% of the number of foreign born persons from a given nation counted in the 1910 census
~A maximum of 357,000

26

Quota Act of 1924

A second Quota Act passed to ensure that the law would discriminate against immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe
~Set quotas of 2% based on the Census of 1890
~Chiefly restricted the "undesirables"

27

Sacco and Vanzetti

Convicted in 1921 of committing robbery and murder in Massachusetts
~Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants
~Liberals protested that the two men were innocent and were only accused and sentenced to die, simply because they were poor Italians and anarchists
~Executed in 1927

28

Washington Conference (1921)

Ran by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes to talk about resolution of problems in the Pacific
~Representatives from: Belgium, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, and Portugal
~Three agreements came to fruition:
1. Five-Power Treaty: Nations with the 5 largest navies agreed to maintain the following ratio with respect to their largest warships: U.S. 5, G.B. 5, JP 3, FR 1.67, IT 1.67. Britain and the U.S. agreed not to fortify their possessions in the Pacific
2. Four-Power Treaty: The U.S., France, Britain, and Japan agreed to respect one another's territory in the Pacific
3. Nine-Power Treaty: All 9 nations represented at the conference agreed to respect the Open Door Policy by guaranteeing the territorial integrity of China

29

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends
~Proved ineffective because:
1. Permitted defensive wars
2. Failed to provide for taking action against violators of the agreement

30

Dawes Plan

Established a cycle of payments flowing from the United States to Germany, and from Germany to the Allies
~U.S. banks would lend Germany huge sums to rebuild its economy and pay reparations to Britain and France
~Britain and France would use reparation money to pay the U.S.