Chapter 20: Foreign Policy 1865-1914 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20: Foreign Policy 1865-1914 Deck (37)
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William Seward

Served under both Lincoln and Johnson as Secretary of State
~Aided Lincoln in keeping France and Britain out of the Civil War


Napoleon III

Nephew of the first Napoleon
~Took advantage of the U.S. involvement in the Civil War by sending French troops to occupy Mexico
~Led to the passage of the Monroe Doctrine



A vast territory that had been the subject of dispute between two European powers who claimed it. Great Britain and Russia
~Russia sold Alaska to the U.S. for $7.2 million
~Called the purchase "Seward's Folly" or "Seward's Icebox"



The expansionist means to strengthen a country
~Needed a worldwide market for the growing industrial and agricultural surpluses
~Needed new sources of raw materials for manufacturing


International Darwinism

Darwin's survival of the fittest theory, applied to nations
~According to this theory only the strongest survived
~This meant that the U.S. had to be strong religiously, militantly, and politically
~Had to gain strength by gaining territories overseas


Reverend Josiah Strong

Wrote: "Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis"
~Wrote that people of Anglo-Saxon stock were "the fittest to survive" and that Protestant Americans had a Christian duty to colonize other lands to spread Christianity and Westernization


Alfred Thayer Mahan

A U.S. Navy Captain, wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
~Argued that a strong navy was crucial to a country's ambitions of securing foreign markets and becoming a world power
~Allowed for the persuasion of Congress to finance the construction of modern steel ships
~Encouraged the acquisition of overseas, such as Samoa


Pan American Conference (1889)

Representatives from various nations of the Western Hemisphere decided to create a permanent organization for international cooperation on trade and other issues
~Hoped to bring about reductions in tariff rates



An intense form of American nationalism calling for an aggressive foreign policy
~Called for the United States to take its place with the imperialist nations
~Presidents Cleveland and McKinley disagreed


Valeriano Weyler

General "Butcher" Valeriano Weyler of Spain
~Sent from Spain to put down Cuban Revolt, 100,000 troops
~Formed a version of a concentration camp where Cubans were sent to starve


"Yellow Journalism"

Newspapers who actively promoted war fever in the United States by using bold, lurid headlines of crime, disaster, and scandal
~Two major newspapers in New York: Pulitzer's New York World, and Hearst's New York Journal
~Both printed false accounts of Spanish atrocities in Cuba
~Increased the war cry


DeLôme Letter

The leaked letter from a Spanish diplomat, caused a storm of outrage
~Leaked and printed by the press
~Was highly critical of President McKinley
~Was considered a Spanish insult against American honor


U.S.S. Maine

A U.S. warship that exploded at Havana harbor
~Killed 260 Americans onboard
~Yellow press accused Spain of deliberately blowing up the ship
~Experts concluded that the explosion was probably an accident


Teller Amendment

Congress' response to President McKinley's war message
~Declared that the U.S. had no intention of taking political control of Cuba and that, once peace was restored on the island, the Cubans would control their own government


Commodore George Dewey

Led a fleet to the Philippines under Theodore Roosevelt's order (was Secretary of Navigations)
~Opened fire on Spanish ships in Manila Bay
~Soon took control of Manila


Rough Riders

A regiment of volunteers led by Theodore Roosevelt
~Aided in victory at San Juan by African American veterans


Queen Liliuokalani

The Hawaiian monarch prior to the overthrow of power in 1893
~After her overthrow Hawaii was annexed in 1898, and became the 50th state


Paris Peace Treaty (1898)

Treaty that ended the Spanish-American War
~Provided for:
1. Recognition of Cuban independence
2. U.S. acquisition of two Spanish Islands-Puerto Rico and Guam
3. U.S. acquisition of the Philippines in return for $20 million paid to Spain


Emilio Aguinaldo

A Filipino nationalist leader who had fought alongside U.S. troops during the Spanish American War
~After, he led bands of guerrilla fighters in a war against U.S. control
~"war" lasted 3 years


Anti-Imperialist League

A group led by William Jennings Bryan who rallied opposition to further acts of expansion in the Pacific


Platt Amendment (1901)

An army appropriations bill, bitterly resented by Cuban nationalists
~Required Cuba to agree:
1. Never to sign a treaty with a foreign power that impaired its independence
2. Never to build up an excessive public debt
3. To permit the United States to intervene in Cuba's affairs to preserve its independence and maintain law and order
4. To allow the U.S. to maintain naval bases in Cuba including one at Guantánamo Bay
~Made Cuba one of the U.S.'s protectorates


Election of 1900

The election where Republicans nominated President McKinley and Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan
~Bryan still tried to attack the gold standard
~McKinley won by an even larger margin than the previous election


Open Door Policy

John Hay's idea help the spheres of influence in China problem
~The idea that all nations would have equal trading privileges in China
~All countries gave Hay an evasive answer, he viewed it as the countries had accepted the Open Door Policy


Boxer Rebellion (1900)

Due to the rise of nationalism and Xenophobia (hatred and fear of foreigners) in China
~A secret society of Chinese nationalists-The Society of Harmonious Fists, or Boxers-attacked foreign settlements and murdered dozens of Christian missionaries
~U.S. forces participated in an international and quickly suppressed the rebellion
~China was forced to pay a huge sum in indemnities which further weakened the imperial regime


Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903)

The first act the new government of independent Panama
~Granted the United States long-term control of a canal zone


Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)

The treaty with Great Britain which allowed for the canal to be built
~The British agreed to abrogate an earlier treaty which made any canal in Central America under the joint U.S.-British control
~All the treaty allowed for was that the U.S. could begin to dig the canal without British involvement


Roosevelt Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine)

It meant that the United States would send gunboats to a Latin American country that was delinquent in paying its debts
~U.S. sailors would go to occupy that country's ports to manage the collection of custom taxes until the European debts were satisfied
~Led to poor U.S. relations in Latin America


Gentlemen's Agreement (1908)

An informal agreement regarding California's Japanese segregation laws
~Japanese government was insulted, so President Roosevelt arranged for a compromise by means of an informal understanding
~The Japanese government agreed to restrict the emigration of Japanese workers
~In return, Roosevelt persuaded California to repeal its discriminatory laws


Great White Fleet

To demonstrate U.S. naval power to Japan and other nations, Roosevelt sent a fleet of battleships on an around-the-world tour
~The Great White Ships made for an impressive sight
~Japanese government warmly welcomed their arrival in Tokyo Bay


Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)

An important executive agreement concluded between the U.S. and Japan
~Made by U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador Takahira
~Pledged that:
1. Mutual respect for each nation's Pacific possessions
2. Support for the Open Door Policy in China


Dollar Diplomacy

President Taft's foreign policy that was mildly expansionist, but relied on investor's money rather than a military
~Trying to promote U.S. trade by supporting American enterprises abroad


Lodge Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine)

Resolution that stated that Non-European powers would be excluded from owning territories in the Western Hemisphere
~Offended Japan and angered Latin America


Jones Act (1916)

President Wilson's Moral Diplomacy in the Philippines
1. Granted full territorial status to the Philippines
2. Guaranteed a Bill of Rights and universal male suffrage to Filipino citizens
3. Promised Philippine independence as soon as a stable government was established


Victoriano Huerta

Man who ran the Mexican dictatorship
~Assassinated the democratically elected president


Tampico Incident

The attempt by Wilson to aid the revolutionaries in Mexico against Huerta
~An arms embargo against the Mexican government and a fleet blockade at the port Vera Cruz
~Ended in mediation by Latin America's ABC Powers (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile)


Pancho Villa

Led a group of revolutionaries who challenged the new Mexican government after Huerta's regime fell
~Led raids along U.S.-Mexican border
~Murdered a number of people in Texas and New Mexico


General John J. Pershing

Sent by President Wilson to stop Villa in his raids
~Was in Mexico for months without being able to capture Villa