Chapter 13: The Union in Peril 1848-1861 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: The Union in Peril 1848-1861 Deck (29):
1

Free Soil Party

Sought to keep the West a land of opportunity for whites only so that the white majority would not have to compete with the labor of slaves or free blacks
~Adopted the slogan: "free soil, free labor, and free men"
~Advocated free homesteads (public land grants to small farmers) and internal improvements

2

Popular Sovereignty

A proposed compromise by Lewis Cass of Michigan
~Suggested that the matter be determined by a vote of the people who settled the territory

3

Zachary Taylor

Whig nomination for president in 1848, 12th president of the United States
~Prior to 1848, had never been involved in politics
~Narrowly defeated Democrat's candidate: Cass
~Was a Mexican-American War hero

4

Compromise of 1850

Given by Henry Clay on the California Territory problem included
~Admit California to the Union as a free state
~Divide the rest of Mexican Cession into two territories-Utah and New Mexico- and allow settlers in these territories to decide the slavery by popular sovereignty
~Give the land in dispute between Texas and the New Mexico territory to the new territories in return for the federal government assuming Texas' public debt of $10 million
~Ban the slave trade in DC
~Adopt a new Fugitive Slave Law and enforce it rigorously

5

William Seward

Senator from New York who argued against slavery
~Thought that there was a higher law than the Constitution

6

Fugitive Slave Law

Persuaded many Southerners to accept the loss of California to the abolitionists and free soilers
~Purpose was to track down runaway/fugitive slaves who escaped to a Northern state, capture them, and return them to their Southern owners
~The law placed fugitive slave cases under exclusive jurisdiction of the federal government
~Citizens who attempted to hide a runaway or obstruct enforcement of the law were subject to heavy penalties

7

Underground Railroad

Helped escaped slaves reach freedom in the North or in Canada
~Neither well organized nor dominated by white abolitionists
~Both Northern free blacks and escaped slaves led other blacks to freedom
~Escaped slave Harriet Tubman made at least 19 trips South to help around 300 slaves escape

8

"Uncle Tom's Cabin"

Most influential book of its day written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
~A novel about the conflict between a slave named Tom and the brutal white slave owner Simon Legree
~Moved a generation of Northerners and many Europeans to believe that all slave owners as monstrously cruel and inhuman
~Southerners condemned the "untruths" in the novel and looked upon it as one more proof of the North's incurable prejudice against the Southern way of life

9

"The Impending Crisis of the South"

Hinton R. Helper's nonfiction book which attacked the South/slavery from a different angle
~Native of North Carolina used statistics to show fellow Southerners that slavery had a negative impact on the South's economy
~Southern states banned the book
~However, widely distributed in the North by anti-slavery and Free Soil leaders

10

George Fitzhugh

Boldest and best known pro-slavery authors
~Questioned the principle of equal rights for "unequal" men
~Attacked capitalist wage system as worse than slavery
~"Sociology for the South" (1854) and "Cannibals All!" (1857)

11

Franklin Pierce

Democratic nominee for president in the Election of 1852
~14th President of the United States from New Hampshire
~Acceptable to Southerners because of his support for the fugitive slave law
~Won electoral vote in all but 4 states

12

Stephan Douglas

Senator from Illinois who devised a plan for building a railroad and promoting Western settlement (While simultaneously increasing his property values in Chicago)
~Needed Southern approval for his plan to build a transcontinental railroad through the Central portion of the US with a major terminal in Chicago
~Won approval by passing a bill on another subject: Kansas-Nebraska Act
~Proposed that the Nebraska Territory be divided into the Kansas and Nebraska Territory and the inhabitants had popular sovereignty

13

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Proposed by Senator Stephan Douglas in 1854
~Proposed that the Nebraska Territory be divided into the Kansas and Nebraska Territory
~Inhabitants had popular sovereignty

14

Know-Nothing Party

Nativist hostilities created this party (AKA: American Party)
~Party members commonly responded "I don't know nuthin" to questions
~Drew support from the Whigs after Election of 1852
~Burning issue was opposition to Catholics and immigrants
~Know-Nothings never amounted to anything significant

15

Republican Party

Founded in Wisconsin as a direct reaction to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
~A coalition of Free Soilers, anti-slavery Whigs, and anti-slavery Democrats made up its ranks
~Its first platform was the repeal of both the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law
~All united against slavery in the TERRITORIES! (were okay with slavery continuing in the SOUTH ONLY!)

16

Millard Fillmore

The Know-Nothing's nominee for president in the Election of 1856
~Former 13th president

17

James Buchanan

The Democrat's nominee for president in the Election of 1856
~15th president of the United States
~Won majority and defeated Republican nominee John C. Frémont

18

"Bleeding Kansas"

Fighting which broke out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in Kansas
~Both pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups sought the Kansas Territory for a free/slave state
~Both groups sent many people to live in Kansas so popular sovereignty moved in their favor
~This tactic broke out into fighting

19

John Brown

Anti-slavery activist who brutally murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers
~Believed that this was what had to be done to preserve Kansas

20

"Border Ruffians"

Another name for pro-slavery Missourians
~Mocking name created by anti-slavery-ites
~Crossed the border into Missouri to create pro-slavery legislature in Kansas

21

Brooks-Sumner Incident

An incident where Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner was beaten within an inch of his life by Congressman Preston Brooks
~Sumner verbally attacked the Democratic administration
~Named "the Crime Against Kansas"
~His remarks included personal charges against South Carolinan Senator Andrew Butler
~Brooks (Butler's nephew) stormed into Senate chamber and beat Sumner with a cane to defend his absent uncle's honor
~Brooks=hero in South
~Sumner=hero in North

22

Lecompton Constitution

A constitution written by "Border Ruffians" objectifying a pro-slavery ideal
~Submitted to President Buchanan, and although it was obvious that the majority did not agree with it, he pushed it through to Congress
~Congress rejected it

23

Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)

A case brought before the Supreme Court by a slave from Missouri, who had lived in Wisconsin (a free state) for two years and argued that he was therefore a free citizen
~Ruled against Scott because:
1. He had no right to sue in a federal court because the Framers of the Constitution did not intend for Africans to be citizens
2. Congress could not exclude slavery from any federal territory, for it was a violation of the 4th Amendment
3. The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it violated the 4th Amendment
~Southern Democrats delighted at this ruling while Northern Republicans were shocked
~Supreme Court declared that all Western Territory was open to slavery

24

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Lincoln questioned how Douglas could reconcile popular sovereignty with the Dred Scott decision
~Led to Freeport Doctrine

25

Freeport Doctrine

Douglas' response to Lincoln in the Lincoln-Douglas Debate
~Douglas responded that slavery could not exist in a community if the local citizens did not pass/enforce laws (slave codes) for maintaining it
~Angered Southern Democrats
~They didn't believe that he went far enough in supporting the implications of the Dred Scott case

26

Harper's Ferry

John Brown's attempt to start a slave revolt in Virginia
~John Brown led a small band of followers in an attack on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry
~His impractical plan was to use guns from the arsenal to arm Virginia's slaves
~Federal troops caught them after a 2 day siege

27

Constitutional Union Party

A fourth party created out of fear of a Republican victory in the Election of 1860
~Nominated John Bell of Tennessee
~Platform pledged enforcement of the laws and Constitution and preserving the Union

28

Confederate States of America

The country created by the States that seceded from the Union]
~South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
~Constitution was similar to the United States Constitution
~Difference was that the Confederacy placed limits on the government's power to impose tariffs and restrict slavery
~President: Jefferson Davis
~V.P.: Alexander Stephens

29

Crittenden Compromise

The last effort to appease the South
~A proposed Constitutional amendment which guaranteed the right to hold slaves in all the territories South of the 36°30'
~Lincoln said that he could not accept this compromise because it violated the Republican position against extension of slavery into the territories