Flashcards in Chapter 13 Social Psychology Deck (59):
The study of the causes and consequences of sociality.
Behaviour whose purpose is to harm another.
A principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted.
Most reliable predictor of aggression is ___.
Variation over time and geography shows that ___ can play a role in aggression.
Behaviour by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.
A collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others.
A positive or negative evaluation of another person based on group membership.
Positive or negative behaviour toward another person based on their group membership.
The Prisoner's Dilemma Game
Cooperation vs. Noncooperation and punishment.
The Wason Card-Selection Task
Ability to detect cheaters that surpasses their capacity for logical reasoning in general.
People will pay to punish someone who has treated them unfairly.
A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in agroup causes people to become less aware of their individual values.
Diffusion of Responsibility
The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting in the same way.
Behaviour that benefits another without benefitting oneself.
The process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives.
Behaviour that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future.
___ are more reproductively selective than ___.
Mere Exposure Effect
The tendency for liking ton icrease with the frequency of exposure.
Three physical factors that may influence attraction:
Body shape, symmetry, age.
An experience involving feeligns of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction.
An experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well being.
The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits.
The cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserce or could attain in another relationship.
The ability to control another perosn's behaviour.
A state of affairsi n whicih the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal.
The ability to control another person's behaviour.
People are motivated to experience pleasure, not pain.
People are motivated to be accepted, not rejected, by others.
People are motivated to believe what is right, and avoid believing what is wrong.
A customary standard for behaviour that is widely shared by members of a culture.
A phenomenon that occurs when another person's behaviour provides information about what is appropriate.
Norm of Reciprocity
The unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefitted them.
A strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behaviour. Big ask followed by small ask.
Asch's Conformity Study
When presented with a set of answers with one clear answer, but when peers answered incorrectly, the participant was 75% likely to conform and pick an incorrrect answer.
The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do.
Milgram's Obedience Studies
People obey commands issued by people in power 80% of the time, even if it means killing someone.
An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event.
An enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event.
A phenomenon that occurs when a person's behaviour provides information about what is good or right.
A phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person.
The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason.
The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to emotion or habit.
A technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request.
An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs.
The processes by which people come to understand others.
The process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong.
Four properties of stereotyping:
Inaccurate, overused, self-perpetuating, and automatic.
3 reasons stereotypes are self-perpetuating:
Perceptual confirmation, self-fulfilling, and subtyping.
A phenomenon that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive.
The tendency for people to cause what they expect to see.
The tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them.
Inferences about the causes of peoples behaviours.
When we decide that a person's behaviour was a result of some temporary aspect of the situation he/she was in.
When we decide a person's behaviour was caused by his or her relatively enduring tendency to think, feel, or act in a particular way.
Three aspects of Covariation Model
Consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus.
The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behaviour was caused by the situation.
Another name for correspondence bias.
Fundamental attribution error.