Chapter 13 Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Social Psychology Deck (59):
1

Social Psychology

The study of the causes and consequences of sociality.

2

Aggression

Behaviour whose purpose is to harm another.

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Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

A principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted.

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Most reliable predictor of aggression is ___.

Gender.

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Variation over time and geography shows that ___ can play a role in aggression.

Culture.

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Cooperation

Behaviour by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.

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Group

A collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others.

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Prejudice

A positive or negative evaluation of another person based on group membership.

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Discrimination

Positive or negative behaviour toward another person based on their group membership.

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The Prisoner's Dilemma Game

Cooperation vs. Noncooperation and punishment.

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The Wason Card-Selection Task

Ability to detect cheaters that surpasses their capacity for logical reasoning in general.

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Ultimatum Game

People will pay to punish someone who has treated them unfairly.

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Deindividualism

A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in agroup causes people to become less aware of their individual values.

14

Diffusion of Responsibility

The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting in the same way.

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Altruism

Behaviour that benefits another without benefitting oneself.

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Kin Selection

The process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives.

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Recipricol Altrusim

Behaviour that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future.

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___ are more reproductively selective than ___.

Women, men.

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Mere Exposure Effect

The tendency for liking ton icrease with the frequency of exposure.

20

Three physical factors that may influence attraction:

Body shape, symmetry, age.

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Passionate Love

An experience involving feeligns of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction.

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Compassionate Love

An experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well being.

23

Social Exchange

The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits.

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Comparison Level

The cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserce or could attain in another relationship.

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Social Influence

The ability to control another perosn's behaviour.

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Equity

A state of affairsi n whicih the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal.

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Social Influence

The ability to control another person's behaviour.

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Hedonic Motive

People are motivated to experience pleasure, not pain.

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Approval Motive

People are motivated to be accepted, not rejected, by others.

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Accuracy Motive

People are motivated to believe what is right, and avoid believing what is wrong.

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Norm

A customary standard for behaviour that is widely shared by members of a culture.

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Normative Influence

A phenomenon that occurs when another person's behaviour provides information about what is appropriate.

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Norm of Reciprocity

The unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefitted them.

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Door-In-The-Face Technique

A strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behaviour. Big ask followed by small ask.

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Asch's Conformity Study

When presented with a set of answers with one clear answer, but when peers answered incorrectly, the participant was 75% likely to conform and pick an incorrrect answer.

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Obedience

The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do.

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Milgram's Obedience Studies

People obey commands issued by people in power 80% of the time, even if it means killing someone.

38

Attitude

An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event.

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Belief

An enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event.

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Informational Influence

A phenomenon that occurs when a person's behaviour provides information about what is good or right.

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Persuasion

A phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person.

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Systematic Persuasion

The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason.

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Heuristic Persuasion

The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to emotion or habit.

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Foot-In-The-Door Technique

A technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request.

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Cognitive Dissonance

An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs.

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Social Cognition

The processes by which people come to understand others.

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Stereotyping

The process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong.

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Four properties of stereotyping:

Inaccurate, overused, self-perpetuating, and automatic.

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3 reasons stereotypes are self-perpetuating:

Perceptual confirmation, self-fulfilling, and subtyping.

50

Perceptual Confirmation

A phenomenon that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive.

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

The tendency for people to cause what they expect to see.

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Subtyping

The tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them.

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Attributions

Inferences about the causes of peoples behaviours.

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Situational Attributions

When we decide that a person's behaviour was a result of some temporary aspect of the situation he/she was in.

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Dispositional Attributions

When we decide a person's behaviour was caused by his or her relatively enduring tendency to think, feel, or act in a particular way.

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Three aspects of Covariation Model

Consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus.

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Correspondence Bias

The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behaviour was caused by the situation.

58

Another name for correspondence bias.

Fundamental attribution error.

59

Actor-Observer Effect

The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviour while making dispositional attributions for the identical behaviour of others.