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Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (68):
1

Social Psychology

The study of the courses and consequences socially.

2

Ultra-Social groups are characterized by:

Large groups, splitting up of tasks, come together for the benefit of all.

3

Aggression

Behaviour whose purpose is to harm another.

4

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

A principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted.

5

Example of Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis.

Want oil (goal), oil in another country (frustration), invade country to get oil (aggression).

6

___ feelings and negative ___ lead to increased aggression.

Bad, affect.

7

Young men commit __% of murders and __% of violent crimes.

90, 80.

8

This hormone is correlated with aggression.

Testosterone.

9

___ can provide good and bad examples for aggression.

Culture.

10

Cooperation

Behaviour by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.

11

Group

A collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others.

12

Deindividualization

A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values.

13

Diffusion of Responsibility

The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way.

14

Altruism

Behaviour that benefits another without benefitting oneself.

15

Kin Selection

The process by which evolution selects individuals who cooperate with their relatives.

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Reciprocal Altruism

Behaviour that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future.

17

Females are more selective with mates for these reasons:

Only have limited number of eggs, physical cost, impacts ability to make a living.

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Female selectivity decreases with:

Access to contraceptives, reproductive rights, financial independence, and communal child rearing styles.

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Male selectivity increases with:

A long term relationship.

20

Situational factors in attraction:

Proximity and Mere Exposure Effect.

21

Mere Exposure Effect

The tendency for the liking to increase with the frequency of exposure.

22

Influence of beauty:

More friends, sex, dates, fun, potential attentiveness, social skills.

23

Characteristics associated with attractiveness

Hourglass figure, symmetry, and maturity.

24

People are attracted to competence with a bit of ___.

Incompetence.

25

Probability of marrying before 40 is __% for males and __% for females.

81, 86.

26

Divorce rates ___ after the first marriage.

Increase (50, 67, 73).

27

Two types of love:

Passionate and compassionate.

28

Passionate Love

An experience involves feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction.

29

Compassionate Love

An experience that involves affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well being.

30

Social Exchange

The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits.

31

Forensic Psychology

How psychology applies to the legal system.

32

Two types of reasoning:

Hypothetico-Deductive and Inductive.

33

Two variables in forensic psychology:

Violence and justice variable.

34

Social Influence

The ability to control another person's behaviour.

35

3 Suceptabilities in Social Influence:

Hedonic Motive, Approcal Motive, Accuracy Motive.

36

Hedonic Motive

People are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid experiencing pain (pleasure speaking).

37

Example of how tone can influence people's behaviour.

"Please do not write on walls" vs. "Do not write on walls under any circumstances".

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Example of how culture can influence people's behaviour.

American students were less likely to give up their students unless everyone had to, while Latino and Asian students gave up their own but did not force others to.

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Approval Motive

People are motivated to be accepted and to avoid being rejected.

40

Norms

A customary standard for behaviour that is widely shared by members of a culture.

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Normative Influence

A phenomenon that occurs when another person's behaviour provides information about what is appropriate (candy at restaurants).

42

Door-In-The-Face Technique.

A strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behaviour. Large ask followed by small ask.

43

Conformity

The tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it.

44

What did Line Matching find in 1951?

75% of participants conformed to the norm.

45

Obedience

The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do.

46

Milgram's Obedience Study of 1963

Teacher, learner, and experimenter, where 80% of participants shocked learners even as they screamed, and 62% delivered a voltage high enough to kill.

47

Accuracy Motive

People are motivated to believe what is right and to avoid believing what is wrong.

48

Attitude

An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event.

49

Belief

An enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event.

50

Informational Influence

A phenomenon that occurs when another person's behaviour provides information about what is good or right.

51

Sense of Entitlement: Rich and Poor.

Rich people feel more entitled than poor people.

52

Persuasion

A phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person.

53

Two types of persuasion:

Systematic and heuristic.

54

Systematic Persuasion

Refers to the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason.

55

Heuristic Persuasion

Refers to the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habits or emotion.

56

Consistency

People evaluate the accuracy of new beliefs by assessing their consistency with old beliefs.

57

Cognitive Dissonance

Refers to an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs.

58

In the turning knobs, the people that were paid less alleviated their ___ ___ by convincing others that they liked the task more than they did.

Cognitive dissonance.

59

Social Cognition

The process by which people come to understand others.

60

Stereotyping

The process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which other belong.

61

Attribution

An inference about the cause of a person's behaviour.

62

Two types of attribution:

Situational and dispositional.

63

Situational Attribution

Behaviour was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation in which it happened.

64

Dispositional Attribution

Behaviour was caused by an individual's enduring tendency to think, feel, or act in a particular way.

65

Kelley 1967.

Covariation Model of Attribution.

66

Three aspects of Covariation Model of Attribution

Consensus, Distinctiveness, and Consistency.

67

Correspondence Bias

The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behaviour was caused by the situation.

68

Actor-Observer Effect

Tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviours while making dispositional attributions for the identical behaviour of others.