Flashcards in Experimentation and Ethics Deck (20):

1

## Experiment.

### A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables.

2

## An experiment is comprised of:

### Manipulation and Randomization.

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## Manipulating the independent variable creates:

### The control and experimental groups (exposure to violent TV).

4

## After creating a pattern of variation through manipulation, we measure the:

### Dependent variable (aggression).

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## After we measure the dependent variable, we:

### Check whether variations in the independent and dependent variable are synchronized (correlation coefficient). Is there a causal relation?

6

## Two types of randomization:

### Self-selection and random assignment.

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## Self-Selection Problem:

### Problem that arises when a participant's inclusion in the control or experimental group is determined by the participant.

8

## Random Assignment:

### A procedure that uses random events to ensure that a participant's assignment to the experimental or control group is not determined by any third variable (flip a coin or pull from a hat).

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## Flaw in Random Assignment?

### Third variable problem can still exist. We cannot conclude that there is a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable.

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## Inferential Statistics.

### Calculations that are used to tell whether or not random assignment worked or failed. Worked only if p<0.05.

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## Srtatistical Significance Can Be Claimed If:

### There is a 95% or greater chance that random assignment worked.

12

## Internal Validity

### The characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable.

13

## Internal Validity Can Be Claimed If:

###
-Independent variable was effectively manipulated.

-There was random assignment.

-The dependent variable was measured in a valid, unbiased manner, with reliability and powerful measure.

-A correlation was observed between the pattern of variation in the independent variable nad the pattern of variation dependso n the dependent variable.

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## External Validity.

### A characteristic of an experiment in which the independent and dependent variables are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way. Does not happen often, as experiments are rarely replicated in the real world.

15

## Theory.

### A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs, usually in the form of a statement about the causal relationship between two or more properties.

16

## Hypothesis.

### A specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory.

17

## Random Sampling.

### The technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. Mostly impossible.

18

## Research and Ethics Board Consider:

###
-Informed consent.

-Freedom from coercion.

-Protection from harm.

-Risk-benefit analysis.

-Debriefing.

-Populations at increased risk.

-Compensation.

-Confidentiality.

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## Significance of International Declaration of Helsinki 1964.

### Cornorstone document for experimenting involving humans. Developed by World Medical Association. Not binding.

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