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Flashcards in Treatments Deck (60):
1

Barriers to Treatment

Stigma, belief systems, embarrassment, finances, access to clinics or personnel.

2

Psychotherapy

An interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem.

3

Eclectic Psychotherapy

Treatment that draws on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem, Allows for flexibility.

4

Psychodynamic Psychotherapies

A general approach to treatment that explores childhood events and encourages individuals to develop insight into their psychological problems.

5

Psychoanalysis

Assumes humans are born with aggressive sexual urges, repressed during childhood through defensive mechanisms, and bring repressed conflicts into consciousness.

6

Free Association in developing insight.

Client reports every thought that enters their mind without censorship or filtering.

7

Dream Analysis in developing insight.

Dreams are metaphors that symbolize our unconscious conflicts and wishes.

8

Intepretation in developing insight.

Therapist suggests possible meanings and look for signs that the correct meaning has been identified.

9

Resistance in developing insight.

A reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material.

10

Transference

An event that occurs in psychoanalysis when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life, and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies.

11

Client with a history of abandonment would be negatively affected if the therapist has to change an appointment, as they believe that the therapist has ___ them.

Abandoned.

12

Interpersonal Psychotherapy

A form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships.

13

Behaviour Therapy

A type of therapy that assumes that disordered behaviour is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviours into more constructive behaviours.

14

Behaviour Therapy is based on ___ and ___ conditioning procedures.

Operant (reinforcement/punishment) and classical (extinction).

15

Eliminating unwanted behaviour.

Focys on consequences by reinforcing or punishing the events that follow.

16

Promoting desired behaviour.

Token system gives clients tokens for desired behaviour, that can be traded for reward. However, when positive reinforcement is discontinued, so are behaviours.

17

Exposure Therapy

An approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in emotional response.

18

Systematic Desensitization

A procedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles in his or her body while imagining being directly in increasingly frightening situations. Habituation and response extinction.

19

Cognitive Therapy

A form of psychotherapy that involves helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world.

20

Cognitive Restructuring

A therapeutic approach that teaches clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and prediction that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs.

21

Mindfulness Meditation

A form of cognitive therapy that teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment, to be aware of his or her thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and to detect symptoms before they become a problem.

22

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

A blend of cognitive and behavioural therapeutic strategies.

23

CBT can be ___ focused or ___ focused.

Problem, action.

24

Problem focused CBT.

Address specific problems.

25

Action focused CBT.

Select specific strategies to address specific problems.

26

Who came up with the Person-Centered Therapy?

Carl Rogers.

27

Person-Centered Therapy

An approach to therapy that assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist.

28

Nondirective Treatment

Assumes that individuals are qualified enough to determine their own goals for therapy.

29

3 basic qualities that the therapist must have in Person-Centered Therapy

Congruence, Empathy, and Unconditional positive regard.

30

Gestalt Therapy

An existential approach to treatment with the goal of helping the client become aware of his or her thoughts, behaviours, experiences, and feelings to "own" or take responsibility for them.

31

Couples and Family Therapy

Therapy seeks to address problems that arise from interactions rather than from problems of one individual.

32

Group Therapy

Therapy in which multiple participants (who often do not know one another at the outset) work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere.

33

Self-Help and Support Groups

Discussion groups or internet chat groups that are usually led by a peer that has struggled with the particular disorder or difficult life experience.

34

___ is the opposite of depression, not happiness.

Vitality.

35

Antiphychotic Medications

Medications that are used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.

36

Psychopharmacology

The study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms.

37

Increase in dopamine causes ___ symptoms, while decreases causes ___.

Positive, negative.

38

Atypical Antipsychotics

Affect dopamine and serotonin systems (cognitive and perceptual disruptions, and mood disturbances).

39

Tardive Dyskinesia

Involuntary movement of the face, mouth and extremities.

40

Antianxiety Medications

Refers to drugs that help reduce a person's experience of fear or anxiety.

41

Benzodiazepines

A type of tranquilizer that facilitates the action of the neurotransmitter gabba-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

42

GABA...

Inhibits certain neurons and produces a calming effect.

43

Antidepressants

A class of drugs that help lift people's mood.

44

Iproniazid

Prevents the monoamine oxidase from breaking down neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.

45

Trycyclic

Block the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, which increases the amount of neurotransmitters in the synaptic space between the neurons.

46

SSRI

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors make more serotonin available in the synaptic space.

47

Mood Stabilizers

Refers to medications that are used to suppress swings between mania and depression (bipolar).

48

Common mood stabilizers:

Lithium and Valproate.

49

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

A treatment that involves inducing a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain.

50

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

A treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neural activity in the brain.

51

Phototherapy

A therapy that involves repeated exposure to bright light.

52

Psychosurgery

The surgical destruction of certain brain areas.

53

Natural Improvements

The tendency of symptoms to return to their mean level.

54

None Specific Treatment Effect

Occurs when the client of the therapist attributes their improvement to a feature in the treatment, although that feature wasn't really the active element that caused the improvement.

55

Placebo

An inert substance or procedure that has been applied with the expectation that a healing response will be produced.

56

Reconstructive Memory

When a client's motivation to get well causes errors in the reconstructive memory of the original symptoms.

57

Outcome Studies

Designed to evaluate whether a particular treatment works often in relation to another treatment or control condition.

58

Process Studies

Designed to answer questions regarding why a treatment works or under what circumstances a treatment works.

59

Iatrogenic Illness

Is a disorder or symptom that occurs as a result of a medical or psychological treatment itself.

60

4 kinds of resilience:

Physical, mental, emotional, and social.