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Flashcards in Personality Pt. 2 Deck (44):
1

Psychosexual Stages

Distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures.

2

What are the psychosexual stages, and when do they occur?

Oral (0-18 monhs), anal (18-36 months), phallic (3-6 years), latency (6-puberty), and genital (puberty onwards).

3

Laency is somewhat of a ___ phase.

'Sleeper'.

4

Deprivation or overindulgence in a psychosexual stage leads to ___.

Fixation.

5

___ stage is associated with the ___ and ___ complex.

Phallic, Oedipus, Electra.

6

Our outward present ___ is only the tip of the iceberg.

Personality.

7

Freud had his patients lie on a couch facing away from him to...

Make them more comfortable telling things to him.

8

Self-Actualizing Tendency

The human motive towards realizing our inner potential.

9

What did Rogers come up with?

Unconditional Positive Regard.

10

Unconditional Positive Regard

An attitude of nonjudgemental acceptance towards another person.

11

When ___ and our ___ do not match, our true nature and capabilities are less happy.

Goals, lives.

12

Csikszentmihalyl came up with the idea of...

Flow and peak performance.

13

Maaslow's ___ of Needs.

Hierarchy.

14

Existential Approach

A school of thought that regards personality as governed by an individual's ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death.

15

Responsibility of having to make free choices causes ___.

Angst.

16

Engage in Rumination

Superficial answers to deal with the angst.

17

Security-providing mechanisms can stifle potential for ___ ___.

Personal growth.

18

Morality Salience Studies

Death versus unpleasant experience. When participants have to think about death, it can prompt individuals to become protective of their family, culture, country, and religion.

19

Social Cognitive Approach

Views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situation encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them.

20

Person-Situation Controversy

The question of whether behaviour is caused more by personality or situational factors.

21

According to the Person-Situation Controversy, a ___ can trump ___.

Situation, personality.

22

According to the Person-Situation Controversy, people may not act the same across time, but are more likely to act the same in similar ___.

Situations.

23

Personal Construct

Refers to dimensions people use in making sense of their experience.

24

What did Kelly suggest about personal constructs?

That people view the social world from differing perspectives and that these views arise through the application of personal constructs.

25

Outcome Expectancies

A person's assumptions about the likely consequences of a future behaviour.

26

Our personality largely reflects the ___ we pursue.

Goals.

27

Locus of Control Scale

Beliefs translate into individual differences in emotion and behaviour.

28

If you have an internal locus of control, you believe that you have/don't have control of your life.

Have.

29

When you have an internal locus of control, you are less/more able to cope with stress.

More.

30

Self-Concept

A person's explicit knowledge of his or her own behaviours, traits, and other personal characteristics.

31

William James suggested that selves have ___ facets.

Two.

32

What are the two facets suggested by James?

the "I" that thinks, acts, and experiences the world, and the "Me" that is an object in the world.

33

What did Markus observe in 1977?

That each person finds certain unique personality traits particularly important for conceptualizing the self.

34

Self Schemas

The traits people use to define themselves.

35

Sense of self is largely developed and maintained in relation to ___.

Others.

36

What did Mead find in 1934?

Things people say about us accumulate and are seen as a consensus held by the "generalized other" and are held as a stable concept of self.

37

Stability of self concept promotes consistency in ___ across situations.

Behaviour.

38

Self Verification

The tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept.

39

Self Esteem

The extent to which an individual likes, values, and accepts the self.[

40

Self esteem is either influenced by being accepted and valued by ___ ___ or from specific ___ ___.

Significant others, self evaluations.

41

Desire for self esteem- evolutionary perspective.

Argue that we seek high self esteem because we have evolved to seek out belongingness, and high self esteem indicates being accepted.

42

Desire for self esteem- existential perspective.

Argue that we have a desire for high self esteem to find value in ourselves and escape the anxiety related to recognizing our mortality.

43

Desire for self esteem- self serving bias.

People's tendency to take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures. Maintaining positive view of self.

44

Desire for self esteem- narcissism

A trait that reflects a grandiose view of the self combined with a tendency to seek admiration from and exploit others.