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Flashcards in Intelligence Deck (32):
1

What is Intelligence?

The ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances, and learn from one's experiences.

2

Binet-Simon Scale.

The scale consisted of thirty tasks of increasing difficulty. Estimate a child's "mental level" by calculating the average test score of children in different age groups.

3

Natural Intelligence.

Measure a child's aptitude for learning independent of prior educational achievement.

4

What did Goddard do?

Used this scale to justify meritocracy.

5

Meritcracy.

The more merit you have, the more you obtain in society.

6

What was the Binet-Simon scale used for in the United States under Goddard?

This scale was used to allow or disallow people to immigrate into the United States , and was used in the advancement in the eugenics movement.

7

Eugenics.

Selecting people who have a particular trait, and eliminating the others.

8

Problem with race:

-Most people are 99.9% identical.
- Race has no genetic or scientific basis.
-Variation has more to do with geography than genetics.
-Social construct.

9

What did William Stern suggest in 1914?

Mental level=mental age. You can determine normal development by examining the ratio of the child's mental age to the child's physical age.

10

What did Lewis Terman do in 1916?

Formalized comparison with the intelligence quotient (IQ).

11

Ratio IQ.

A statistic obtained by dividing a person's mental age, and then multiplying the quotient by 100.

12

Deviation IQ.

A statistic obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100.

13

What are the most common tests for IQ?

Stanford-Binet and WAIS.

14

Benefits of Measuring IQ.

-Creates dorrelation between standard intelligence and academic performance.
-Predict occupational status and income.
-Correlation between average score and overall -economic status.
-Job performance.

15

Drawbacks of Measuring IQ.

-Knowledge is power.
-Tests are culturally biased.
-Western concept of intelligence.
-Skills tested test intelligence.

16

Factor Analysis.

A statistical technique developed by Spearman that explains a larger number of correlation in terms of a small number of underlying factors.

17

Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence.

Spearman's theory suggests that every task requires a combination of a general ability (which he called g) and skills that are specific to the task (which he called s).

18

What did Thurstone argue in 1920?

There is no such thing as a general ability.

19

Bottom-up Approach

Administer test, examine responses to identify independent clusters that the responses form.

20

Crystallized Intelligece.

Accuracy and amount of information available for processing.

21

Fluid Intelligence.

The ability to process information.

22

Top-down Approach.

Administer broad survet of human abilities, then identify which abilities the survey measured or failed to measure.

23

Why did Sternberg criticize IQ tests?

They are missing something. Do not provide the same intelligence that tape measures provide for height.

24

Three types of intelligence for the triarchic model:

1. Analytical intelligence.
2. Creative intelligence.
3. Practical intelligence.

25

Analytical Intelligence.

The ability to identify and define problems and to find strategies for solving them. How an individual relates to the internal world.

26

Creative Intelligence.

The ability to generate solutions that other people do not. How an individual relates to the internal world and how this is used to make sense of the external world.

27

Practical Intelligence.

The ability to apply and implement these solutions that other people do not. Street smarts.

28

Triangular Theory of Love.

Intimacy: Encompasses feelings of attachent, closeness, connectedness, and bondedness.
Passion: Encompasses drives connected to both limerence and sexual attaction.
Commitment: Encompasses, in the short term, the decision to remain with another, and in the long term, plans made with that other.

29

Gardner's Research.

Prodigies, savants, eight types of intelligence, and emotional intelligence.

30

Prodigy.

A person of normal intelligence who has an extraordinary ability.

31

Savant.

A person with low intelligence who has an extraordinary ability.

32

Emotional Intelligence.

The ability to reason about emotions to enhance reasoning.