Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Pt. 2 Deck (47):
Jean Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development:
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
___ and ___ development together equals cognitive development.
Up to 2 years, lack Object Presence Theory, use schemas, apply assimilation and accomodation.
Theories about or models the way the world works
Schemas can be used to predict and control what will happen in ___ ___.
Schemas lack a theory of ___ ___.
Object presence: things can exist even when they are not visible.
The process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations (tug the stuffed animal, it comes closer- apply it to ball, food).
The process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information (when you pull on a cat, it will likely not come closer).
Piaget's findings may have been due to a lack of ___ skill, not a lack of ___ ___ Theory.
Motor, Object Presence.
Infants who watched the impossible event in the draw bridge experiment...
2-6 years, children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world. However, cannot perform concrete operations (skinny and wide glass with same amount of water).
Concrete Operational Stage
6-11 years, a stage in which people acquire a basic understanding of the physical world and a preliminary understanding of their own and others' minds.
The notion that the quantitative poperties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance (glasses of water).
Formal Operational Stage
11 years-adulthood, a stage in which people gain a deeper understanding of their own and others' minds and learn to reason abstractly.
In the Formal Operational Stage, people learn that some mental representations have no ___ ___.
Physical referrants. Examples of this include love, liberty, morality.
People in the Formal Operational Stage begin to operate on ___ ___.
The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers.
Theory of Mind:
The idea that human behaviour is guided by mental representations, which give rise to realization that the world is not always the way it looks and that different people see it differently.
Affects 1 in 2500 children. Difficulty communicating and understanding that other people can have false beliefs, belief-based emotions, self unconscious emotions. Intelligent.
Piaget was correct, but he thought that the four stages were ___ and that we graduated from one stop to another.
A researcher of cognitive development.
Cognitive development is largely the result of:
The hcild's interaction with members of his or her own culture rather than interaction with objects.
Cultural tools such as ___ and ___ systems influence cognitive development.
Language, counting systems.
Gordon (2004) found that counting systems do not merely express our ___ ___ ___, they ___ it.
Ability to count, create.
Child's Zone of PRoximal Development
Children at any age can acquire a wide but bounded range of skills.
Infants depend upon caregivers for:
Food, safety, warmth, and social contact.
Socially isolated infants were ___ and ___ delayed, and 2 out of 5 did not make it.
Monkeys preferred ___ mother over ___ mother.
Soft, food dispensing wire.
Theorized that the first moving object a hatchling saw was somehow imprinted on its bird brain as "the thing I must always be near".
Theorized that infants cannot physically attach themselves to caregiver; rather, they use come hither signals. At 6 months, infants target best responder.
Actions that reduce distance.
Strange Situation Test
A behavioural test developed by MAry Ainsworth that is used to determine a child's attachment style. Staging episodes of abandonment, reunion, and interactions with a stranger between a child and their primary caregiver.
4 Results of Strange Situation Test:
Secure, avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized.
Secure in Strange Situation
60% of American infants, will explore freely while its caregiver is present, using her as a safe base from which to explore. The child will engage with the stranger when the caregiver departs, but is happy to see the caregiver upon her return.
Avoidant in Strange Situation
20% of American infants, will avoid or ignore the caregiver, showing little emotions when the caregiver departs or returns. The child will not explore very much regardless of who is in the room, or if it is empty.
Ambivalent in Strange Situation
15% of American infants, almost always shows distress at separation and go to the caregiver upon return. However, they are difficult to console and will rebuff their caregiver's attempt to calm them.
Disorganized in Strange Situation
5% of American Infants, shoes no consistent pattern of responses.
Internal Working Model of Attachment
A set of expectations about how the primary caregiver will respond when the child feels insecure.
Characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity.
3 influences on attachment style:
Temperament (child), responsiveness (primary caregiver), and interaction between the two.
Subsequent development is influenced by ___ relationships and ___ achievement.
2 arguments of subsequent development:
Apply working model throughout life, or responsive caregiver causes infant's attachment and later success.
When seeing an otter that runs away with the ball and an otter that returns the ball, the baby picks the...
Otter that returns the ball.
Babies look ___ at things they liike, and like those that ___ others.
Babies are less forgiving if harm is ___.
Children are ___ in the beginning, and later become ___.