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Flashcards in Language and Communication Deck (25):
1

What is Language?

A system for communicating with others using signals that convey meaning and are combined according to rules of grammar.

2

Human Language is used to:

1. Allow hunans to express a wide range of ideas and conceptions.
2. Allow humans to use words to refer to abstract ideas.
3. Allow humans to use language to name, categorize, and to describe things to ourselves when we think.

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4 Building Blocks of Language:

1. Phonome.
2. Morphemes.
3. Grammar.
4. Syntactical Rules.

4

Phoneme.

The smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than random noise (ex. kill or kiss).

5

Phonological Rules.

A set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds.

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Morpheme.

The smallest meaningful units of language (ex. un-break-able).

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Morphological Rules.

A set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form rules.

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Two Types of Morphemes.

Function morphemes and context morphemes.

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Function Morphemes.

Tie sentences together or indicate time.

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Context Morphemes.

Things and events.

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Grammar.

A set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages.

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Syntactical Rules.

Indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences.

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3 Characteristics of Language Development:

1. Children learn language at a rapid rate.
2. Children make few errors.
3. Passive mastery vs. active mastery.

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Passive Mastery.

Understanding or listening.

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Active Mastery.

Being able to make a sentence as an example.

16

Distinguishing Speech Sounds.

Infants at birth can distinguish between contrasting sounds, 4 months later, they can only distinguish between contrasting sounds in the language they hear around them, and in 4-6 months, they begin to babble. Deaf infants using ASL begin to babble around the same time.

17

Fast Mapping.

Refers to the fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure.

18

Language Milestones:

24 Months- Two word sentences illustrate understanding of syntactical rules.
2-3 Years- Use past tense correctly.
3 Years- Can produce simple but complete sentences.
4-5 Years- Learn frammatical rules, but tend to overgeneralize. Language acquisition is complete, and becomes more complete.

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Two Theories of Language:

Nativist and Interactioninst.

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Nativist Theory of Language.

Infants can distinguish between phonemes regardless of language. Specific time frame for acquiring language. However, only explains why.

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Interactionist Theory of Language.

Developed by Lev Vygotsky, explains how language develops. Although infants are born with an innate ability to acquire language (nativist), social interaction plays a critical role (experience).

22

Broca's Area.

Located in the left frontal cortex. Involved in production of sequential patterns in vocal and sign languages.

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Wernicke's Area.

Located in the left temporal cortex. Involved in language comprehension.

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Aphasia.

Difficulty in producing or comprehending language.

25

Study of Apes

Research suggests that the neurological wiring that allows us to learn language overlaps with apes (to some degree). However, their conceptual repertoire is smaller and simpler than humans.