Chapter 9 Language and Communication Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Language and Communication Deck (41):
1

Language

A system for communicating with other using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning.

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Grammar

A set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages.

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Phoneme

The smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than as random noise.

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Phonological Rules

A set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds.

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Morphemes

The smallest meaningful units of language.

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Morphological Rules

A set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words.

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Syntactical Rules

A set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form sentences.

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Deep Structure

The meaning of a sentence.

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Surface Structure

How a sentence is worded.

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Fast Mapping

The fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure.

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Telegraphic Speech

Speech that is devoid of functional morphemes and consists mostly of content words.

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Nativist Theory

The view that language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity.

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Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

A collection of processes that facilitate language learning.

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Genetic Dysphasia

A syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence.

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Aphasia

Difficulty in producing or comprehending language.

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Broca's Aphasia

Struggle with speech production.

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Wernicke's Aphasia

Difficulty comprehending language.

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Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis

The proposal that languages shapes the nature of thought.

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Concept

A mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events, or oher stimuli.

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Family Resemblance Theory

Members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be posessed by every member.

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Prototype

The "best" or "most typical" member of a category.

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Exemplar Theory

A theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgements by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category.

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Category Specific Deficit

A neurological syndrome that is characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category, though the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed.

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Rational Choice Theory

The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, then multiplying the two.

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Availabilty Bias

Items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occured more frequently.

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Heuristic

A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached.

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Algorithm

A well defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem.

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Conjunction Fallacy

When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event.

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Representativeness Heuristic

A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgement by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event.

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Framing Effects

When people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased (or framed).

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Sunk-Cost Fallacy

A framing effect in which people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation.

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Prospect Theory

The proposal that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains.

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Frequency Format Hypothesis

The proposal that our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they are to occur.

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Means-End Analysis

A process of searching for the means or steps to reduce differences between the current situation and the desired goal.

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Analogical Problem Solving

Solving a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution and applying that solution to the current problem.

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Functional Fixedness

The tendency to perceive the finctoions of objects as fixed.

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Reasoning

A mental activity that consists of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions.

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Practical Reasoning

Figuring out what to do, or reasoning directed towards action.

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Theoretical Reasoning

Reasoning directed toward arriving at a belief.

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Belief Bias

People's judgements about whether to accept conclusions depend more on how believable the conclusions are than on whether the arguments are logically valid.

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Syllogistic Reasoning

Determining whether a conclusion follows from two statements that are assumed to be true.