Chapter 2 Methods Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Methods Deck (61):
1

Empiricism

The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation.

2

Scientific Method

A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence.

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Theory

A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon.

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Hypothesis.

A falsafiable prediction made by a theory.

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Rule of Parsimony for Theory

Find the simplest theory.

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William Ockham

K.I.S.S.

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Evidence never ___ theory.

Proves.

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Empirical Method

A set of rules and techniques for observation.

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Operational Definition

A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms.

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Two kinds of methods that help overcome the difficulty in studying humans:

Observataion, which determines what they do, and explanation, which determines why they do it.

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Good measures have three things:

Validity, reliability, and power.

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Measure

A device that can detect the condition to which an operationl definition refers.

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EMG

Electromyograph, a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin.

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Validity

The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related.

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Reliability

The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing.

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Power

The ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition.

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Demand Characteristics

Thse aspects of an observation; setting that cause people to bahave as they think they should.

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Naturalistic Observation

A technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.

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Cover Stories

Misleading explanations that are meant to keep people from discerning the true purpose of of an observation.

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Filler Items

Pointless measures that are designed to mislead you about the true purpose of the observation.

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Expectations can influence ___ and ___.

Observations, reality.

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Double Blind

An observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed.

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Frequency Distribution

A graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made.

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Normal Distribution

A mathematically defined frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle.

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Mode

Most frequently occuring measurement.

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Mean

Average of measurements.

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Median

Middle memasurement.

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Descriptive Statistics

Brief summary statements that capture essential information about frequency distribution.

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Two types of descriptive statistics:

Central tendency and variability.

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When a graph is positively skewed, the mean, median, and mode are shifted...

Left.

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When a graph is negatively skewed, the mean, median, and mode are shifted...

Right.

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Range

The value of the largest measurement in a frequency distribution minus the value of the smallest frequency.

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Standard Deviation

A statistic that describes the average difference between the measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution.

34

Scientific research aims to establish...

Causal relationships between properties.

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Variable

A property whose value can vary across individuals or over time.

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Correlation

Two variables are said to be correlated when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variation in the value of the other.

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Positive Correlation

More-more or less-less.

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Negative Correlation

More-less or less-more.

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Correlation Coefficient

Measure of the direction and strength of a correlation.

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Natural Correlation

A correlation observed in the world around us.

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Third-Variable Correlation

The fact that two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable.

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Matched Samples

A technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable.

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Matched Pairs

A technique whereby each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable.

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Third Variable Problem

The fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be infererred from the naturally occuring correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation.

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Experiment

A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables.

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Experiments can eliminate differences by ___ and ___.

Manipulation and random assignment.

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Manipulation

Creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable on irder to determine its causal powers.

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Independent Variable

The variable that is manipulated in an experiment.

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Experimental Group

The group of people who are treated in a particular way, as compated to the control group, in an experiment.

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Control Group

The group of people who are not treated in the particular way that the experimental group is treated in an experiment.

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Dependent Variable

The variable that is measured in a study.

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Self-Selection

A problem that occus when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group.

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Random Assignment

A procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group.

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Internal Validity

The characteristic of an experiment that establishes the causal relationship between variables.

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External Validity

A property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way.

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Population

The complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured.

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Sample

The partial collection of people drawn from a population.

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Case Method.

A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual.

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Random Sampling

A technique for chooseing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

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Informed Consent

A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all risks that participation may entail.

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Debriefing

A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of the study.