Flashcards in Chapter 2 Methods Deck (61):

1

## Empiricism

### The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation.

2

## Scientific Method

### A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence.

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## Theory

### A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon.

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## Hypothesis.

### A falsafiable prediction made by a theory.

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## Rule of Parsimony for Theory

### Find the simplest theory.

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## William Ockham

### K.I.S.S.

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## Evidence never ___ theory.

### Proves.

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## Empirical Method

### A set of rules and techniques for observation.

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## Operational Definition

### A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms.

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## Two kinds of methods that help overcome the difficulty in studying humans:

### Observataion, which determines what they do, and explanation, which determines why they do it.

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## Good measures have three things:

### Validity, reliability, and power.

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## Measure

### A device that can detect the condition to which an operationl definition refers.

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## EMG

### Electromyograph, a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin.

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## Validity

### The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related.

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## Reliability

### The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing.

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## Power

### The ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition.

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## Demand Characteristics

### Thse aspects of an observation; setting that cause people to bahave as they think they should.

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## Naturalistic Observation

### A technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.

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## Cover Stories

### Misleading explanations that are meant to keep people from discerning the true purpose of of an observation.

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## Filler Items

### Pointless measures that are designed to mislead you about the true purpose of the observation.

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## Expectations can influence ___ and ___.

### Observations, reality.

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## Double Blind

### An observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed.

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## Frequency Distribution

### A graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made.

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## Normal Distribution

### A mathematically defined frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle.

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## Mode

### Most frequently occuring measurement.

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## Mean

### Average of measurements.

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## Median

### Middle memasurement.

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## Descriptive Statistics

### Brief summary statements that capture essential information about frequency distribution.

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## Two types of descriptive statistics:

### Central tendency and variability.

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## When a graph is positively skewed, the mean, median, and mode are shifted...

### Left.

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## When a graph is negatively skewed, the mean, median, and mode are shifted...

### Right.

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## Range

### The value of the largest measurement in a frequency distribution minus the value of the smallest frequency.

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## Standard Deviation

### A statistic that describes the average difference between the measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution.

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## Scientific research aims to establish...

### Causal relationships between properties.

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## Variable

### A property whose value can vary across individuals or over time.

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## Correlation

### Two variables are said to be correlated when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variation in the value of the other.

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## Positive Correlation

### More-more or less-less.

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## Negative Correlation

### More-less or less-more.

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## Correlation Coefficient

### Measure of the direction and strength of a correlation.

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## Natural Correlation

### A correlation observed in the world around us.

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## Third-Variable Correlation

### The fact that two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable.

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## Matched Samples

### A technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable.

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## Matched Pairs

### A technique whereby each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable.

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## Third Variable Problem

### The fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be infererred from the naturally occuring correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation.

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## Experiment

### A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables.

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## Experiments can eliminate differences by ___ and ___.

### Manipulation and random assignment.

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## Manipulation

### Creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable on irder to determine its causal powers.

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## Independent Variable

### The variable that is manipulated in an experiment.

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## Experimental Group

### The group of people who are treated in a particular way, as compated to the control group, in an experiment.

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## Control Group

### The group of people who are not treated in the particular way that the experimental group is treated in an experiment.

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## Dependent Variable

### The variable that is measured in a study.

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## Self-Selection

### A problem that occus when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group.

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## Random Assignment

### A procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group.

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## Internal Validity

### The characteristic of an experiment that establishes the causal relationship between variables.

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## External Validity

### A property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way.

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## Population

### The complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured.

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## Sample

### The partial collection of people drawn from a population.

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## Case Method.

### A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual.

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## Random Sampling

### A technique for chooseing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

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## Informed Consent

### A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all risks that participation may entail.

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