Flashcards in Chapter 2 Methods Deck (61):
The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation.
A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence.
A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon.
A falsafiable prediction made by a theory.
Rule of Parsimony for Theory
Find the simplest theory.
Evidence never ___ theory.
A set of rules and techniques for observation.
A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms.
Two kinds of methods that help overcome the difficulty in studying humans:
Observataion, which determines what they do, and explanation, which determines why they do it.
Good measures have three things:
Validity, reliability, and power.
A device that can detect the condition to which an operationl definition refers.
Electromyograph, a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin.
The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related.
The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing.
The ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition.
Thse aspects of an observation; setting that cause people to bahave as they think they should.
A technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.
Misleading explanations that are meant to keep people from discerning the true purpose of of an observation.
Pointless measures that are designed to mislead you about the true purpose of the observation.
Expectations can influence ___ and ___.
An observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed.
A graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made.
A mathematically defined frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle.
Most frequently occuring measurement.
Average of measurements.
Brief summary statements that capture essential information about frequency distribution.
Two types of descriptive statistics:
Central tendency and variability.
When a graph is positively skewed, the mean, median, and mode are shifted...
When a graph is negatively skewed, the mean, median, and mode are shifted...
The value of the largest measurement in a frequency distribution minus the value of the smallest frequency.
A statistic that describes the average difference between the measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution.
Scientific research aims to establish...
Causal relationships between properties.
A property whose value can vary across individuals or over time.
Two variables are said to be correlated when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variation in the value of the other.
More-more or less-less.
More-less or less-more.
Measure of the direction and strength of a correlation.
A correlation observed in the world around us.
The fact that two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable.
A technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable.
A technique whereby each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable.
Third Variable Problem
The fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be infererred from the naturally occuring correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation.
A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables.
Experiments can eliminate differences by ___ and ___.
Manipulation and random assignment.
Creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable on irder to determine its causal powers.
The variable that is manipulated in an experiment.
The group of people who are treated in a particular way, as compated to the control group, in an experiment.
The group of people who are not treated in the particular way that the experimental group is treated in an experiment.
The variable that is measured in a study.
A problem that occus when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group.
A procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group.
The characteristic of an experiment that establishes the causal relationship between variables.
A property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way.
The complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured.
The partial collection of people drawn from a population.
A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual.
A technique for chooseing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all risks that participation may entail.