Chapter 14 (9) - Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 14 (9) - Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14 (9) - Digestive System Deck (125):
1

3 Major Functions

1.) Digestion - Breaking down foods into nutrients which can be absorbed

2.) Absorption - Passing nutrients into blood stream (small intestine)

3.) Elimination - Liquid to solid; deification

2

Gastrointestinal Tract (GI)

- Mouth
- Salivary Glands
- Parotid
- Pharynx
- Esophagus
- Stomach
- Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas
- Small Intestine
- Colon
- Rectum
- Anus

3

Small Intestine

- Duodenum
- Jejunum
- Ileum

4

Large Intestine

- Cecum
- Ascending Colon
- Transverse Colon
- Descending Colon
- Sigmoid Colon
- Rectum

5

Lumen

- Mucosa - Innermost layer; Secretes mucus/enzymes

- Submucosa - Connective Tissue; Strength and structure to wall

- Muscularis - Peristalsis (contraction)

- Serosa - Outer Covering

6

Enzymes; Chemical Digestion

Convert complex food molecules into smaller, simple molecules for absorption

Fat -> Lipase -> Fatty Acids

Protein -> Protease -> Amino Acids

Starch -> Amylase -> Sugars

(complex) -> (enzymes) -> (simple molecules)

7

Lips

Sense both temperature and texture

8

Tongue

Frenulum and Papillae

9

Deglutition

Swallowing

10

Lingual Tonsils

Back part of tongue

11

Palatine Tonsils

Normal tonsils

12

Posterior Pharyngeal Wall

Back of throat

13

Hard Palate

Top of mouth; Rugae

14

Soft Palate

Flexible muscular sheet that separates the nasopharynx from the rest of the pharynx

Soft posterior part of palate

15

Uvula

Downward cone shaped projection at the back of the soft palate; Directs food down

16

Gums

Sockets hold teeth

17

Salivary Glands

- Parotid - located inferior to the cheekbone

- Submandibular - located below the mandible

- Sublingual - located in the base of the mouth below the tongue

18

Digestion In The Mouth

- Salivary Glands

- Chemical Digestion

- Mechanical

19

Pharynx

Throat

- Muscle tube moves food into esophagus (about 5")

Esophagus - Muscle Tube

20

Lower Sphincter

LES / Cardiac Sphincter

21

Peristalsis

Contraction in wavelike motions

22

Emesis

Vomiting

23

Stomach

- Fundus - 1st upper curvature, top of stomach

- Cardia - Where esophagus enters the stomach

- Body

- Pylorus

- Greater / Lesser Curvature - Greater is more surface / Lesser is less surface

24

Gastric Juices

- Pepsin - digest proteins

- HCL - Acid

- Mucus - to protect itself from acidic environment

25

Chyme

Chemical substance passed into Duodenum

- Out from stomach

26

Path of Small Intestine

- Duodenum - 10", Chyme mixes with bile (fast digestion) Mixes with Pancreatic Juice (Protein and Starch digestion)

- Jejunum - 8ft long; digestion

- Ileum - Ileocecal Valve, enters large intestine

27

Mesentery

Membrane made of peritoneum

- Contains blood supply to the small and large intestine

- Attaches bowel to Dorsal abdominal wall

28

Absorption

Passage of nutrients from bowel lumen into bloodstream

29

Chyme

1-6hrs to move from stomach to colon

30

Colon

Cecum - 3 Openings:
Ileum - from small intestine
Appendix - Opening into appendix
Ascending Colon - up further to colon

Ascending Colon

Transverse Colon

Descending Colon

Sigmoid Colon

Rectum

Anus

31

Liver

Right upper quadrant

- Right and Left Lobes (right is much larger)

- Portal Triad
- Portal Vein (Blood from Intestines)
- Hepatic Artery (Fresh blood to liver)
- Bile Duct (Bile into intestine)
- Metabolism

- Bile Production

32

Liver / Gallbladder Bile

Made in liver, stored and concentrated in Gallbladder

- Dissolves fats in small intestine (Emulsification)

- Secreted into Bile Duct

33

Pancreas

- Chyme mixes: Bile from liver and Pancreatic Juices

- Pancreatic Juices: Amylase, Lipase, Trypsin

- Pancreatic Duct meets CBD and empties into Duodenum

34

An(o)

Anus

35

Append (o)

Appendix

36

Bil (o)

Bili

Bile

37

Bucc (o)

Cheek

38

Cec (o)

Cecum

39

Celi (o)

Abdomen

40

Chol (e) / Cholo

Bile

41

Cholangi (o)

Bile Vessel

42

Cholecyst (o)

Gall Bladder

43

Choledoch (o)

Common bile duct

44

Col (o)

Colon

45

Duoden (o)

Duodenum

46

Enter (o)

Intestine

47

Esophago

Esophagus

48

Gastr (o)

Stomach

49

Gloss (o)

Tongue

50

Gluc (o)

Glucose

51

Glyc (o)

Sugar

52

Hepat (o)

Liver

53

Labi (o)

Lip

54

Lingu (o)

Tongue

55

Or (o)

Mouth

56

Proct (o)

Anus; Rectum

57

Sial (o)

Saliva; Salivary Gland

58

Sialadeno

Salivary Gland

59

Stomat (o)

Mouth

60

Buccostomatitis

Inflammation of cheek and mouth

61

Celiotomy

Opening (incision) into the abdomen (Laparotomy)

62

Cholangiorrhaphy

Surgical suturing of bile duct (bile vessel)

63

Choledochoplasty

Repair of "common bile duct"

64

Labial

Referring to lip

65

Proctodynia

Pain in or from the rectum

66

Sialoadenitis

Inflammation of salivary glands

67

Gastroma

Tumor of the stomach

68

Linguoid

Resembling a tongue

69

AST, ALT, SGOT, SGPT

Liver Enzymes

70

BM

Bowel Movement

71

EGD

Upper Endoscopy (Esophagus, Gastric, Duodenum)

72

IBD

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

73

IBS

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

74

NG

Nasal Gastric

75

NPO

Nothing by Mouth

76

TPN

Total Parenteral Nutrition

77

UGI (s)

Upper Gastrointestinal Series

78

GERD

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

79

Anorexia

Loss of appetite

80

Anorexia Nervosa

Severe eating disorder due to body image distortion (wish to be thin)

81

Bulimia

Binging and purging, estreme distortion of body image

Complication: Heart Failure, Hair Loss, Amenorrhea, Dental Caries, Death

82

Cheilitis

Inflammation of the lips (unusually at corner of mouth)

83

Glossitis

Inflammation of the tongue

84

Sialoadenitis

Salivary gland inflammation

85

Parotiditis

Parotid gland inflammation

86

Aphagia

Unable to swallow

87

Dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

88

Esophageal Varices

Tortuous veins in the lower esophagus

- Secondary to elevated pressure in Portal Vein

- Common in liver failure

- Frequent cause of upper GI bleeding

89

Esophagitis

Inflammation of Esophagus

- Reflux of acid from stomach into lower stomach

- GERD = Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

90

Dyspepsia

Difficulty Digesting Food

91

Gastroenteritis

Stomach and Small Intestinal inflammation; Stomach flu

92

Hematemisis

Vomiting of blood from the stomach

93

Achalasia

Failure of food to pass from esophagus into stomach

94

Hyperbilirubinemia

Jaundice; Elevated levels of bilirubin in blood

Icterus - Yellowing of the whites of eyes

95

Hepatopathy

Liver disease

96

Hepatomegaly

Enlarged Liver

97

Cirrhosis

Chronic liver disease; Fibrosis of Liver

98

Cholelithiasis

Stones in the gallbladder

99

Choledocholithiasis

Stones in common bile duct

100

Cholangitis

Inflammation of bile ducts

101

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of gallbladder wall

102

Small Bowel Obstruction (SBO)

Mechanical bowel blockage

- usually requires surgical intervention

103

ileus

Lack of normal peristalsis

104

Enteritis

Inflammation of the small bowel

105

Colitis

Inflammation of the colon

106

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Serious condition

- Ulcerative colitis; Crohn's Disease

107

Irritable Bowel Disease

Self limited condition

- Campy abdominal pain; Diarrhea and Consitpation

108

Diverticulitis

Inflammation of diverticula of colon

- Causes left lower abdominal pain

109

Dysentery

Serious form of infectious diarrhea

- Bloody diarrhea; High fever with abdominal pain

- Salmonella or Shigella

110

Volvulus

Instestinal blockage from twisting of bowel loop

111

Intussusception

Instestinal blockage from telescoping

112

Ascites

Fluid accumulation inside abdominal cavity

113

Polyposis

Multiple Polyps in wall of colon

114

Hematochezia

Bright red bleeding from the rectum

115

Melana

Maroon or dark red blood in stool

116

Steatorrhea

Fat in stool

117

Paracentesis

Removal of fluid from abdominal cavity

118

Cholecystectomy

Removal of gallbladder

119

Gastrectomy

Removal of stomach

120

Anastomosis

Surgical reconnection of two parts of bowel parts

121

Cathartic

Laxative

122

Antispasmodic

Controls intestinal spasm

123

Antacid

Neutralizes excessive acid in stomach

124

Antidiarrheal

Controls loose stools

125

Antiemetic

Treats nausea