Chapter 12 (8) - Blood System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 (8) - Blood System Deck (99):
1

Blood

Composed of water, cells, electrolytes, proteins, and nutrients.

Transport Medium - Glucose, hormones, oxygen and waste

5 Liters in body average

2

Structure and Function of Blood

- Complex mixture of cells, water, proteins and sugars.
- Transports nutrients, oxygen and hormones all over body
- Helps regulate body temperature
- Maintain stability of body's fluid volume
- Transports waste products away from body cells.

3

Plasma

Fluid portion (55% of total blood volume)

- Water, Proteins, Electrolytes, Nutrients, Vitamins and Hormones

4

Cells

Particulate portion (45% total blood volume)

- RBC, WBC, Platelets

5

Buffy Coat

WBC & Platelets; When centrifuged it is the portion of blood between the plasma above and RBC's below.

6

Coagulation

- Blood clotting

- Fibrinogen and Prothrombin are proteins necessary for clotting to occur

- Starts with platelets (temporary plug)

7

Plasmapheresis

Centrifuge blood which separates plasma from cells and only return cells to patient

8

Gamma Globulins

Globulin protein fraction

- Immune function (antibodies)

9

Electrophoresis

Process of separating Globulins into fractions (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta)

- Current applied to globulin proteins from plasma division into subtypes

10

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

Live for 120 days; No nucleus to carry more O2

- Produced in Bone Marrow in response to Erythropoietin (Hormone)

- Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that is essential to the transport of oxygen

11

Hematocrit

Measure of concentration of RBC in blood; should be around 40%ish

12

Leukocytes

White blood cells, destroy foreign substances

- 2 Main Groups: Granulocytes & Agranulocytes

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Granulocytes

- Neutrophils (50%-60%)
- Eosinophils
- Basophils

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Agranulocytes

- Monocytes
- Lymphocytes

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Neutrophils

50% - 60%, phagocytes of bacteria and viruses

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Eosinophils

2% - 3%, Kill parasites, allergic reactions

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Basophils

1%, Secrete heparin and histamine (Allergy)

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Monocytes

3%

19

Lymphocytes

25%

20

Platelets

aka Thrombocytes, live about 10 days

- Assist in blood clotting, control bleeding temporarily

- Derived from Megakaryocytes

21

Blood Typing

Transfusions of blood rarely worked until the "typing" of blood was developed.

Tested for type to prevent agglutination of clumping of blood cells (transfusion reaction)

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4 Types of Blood

Based on which Antigen (Ag) is present in RBC

- Type O: No Antigens Present (Both Antibodies)
- Type A: "A" Antigen present ("B" antibodies)
- Type B: "B" Antigen present ("A" antibodies)
- Type AB: "A & B" Antigen present (No Antibodies

Type O is universal donor.
Type AB is universal recipient

23

Rh

Type of antigen first discovered in Rhesus monkeys

- "+" = presence of Rh antigen
- "-" = no Rh antigen

24

WRT Pregnancy

Rh negative mother with Rh positive baby (because of the father) may develop antibodies to attack blood of 2nd pregnancy Rh positive Baby.

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Agglutin (o)

Agglutinin

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Eosin (o)

Eosinophil

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Erythr (o)

Red

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Hemat (o)

Blood

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Leuk (o)

White

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Phag (o)

Eating, Devouring

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Thromb (o)

Blood Clot

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APTT

Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time

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baso

basophil

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BCP

Biochemistry Panel

35

BMT

Bone Marrow Transplant

36

CBC

Complete Blood Count

37

dif

Differential Blood Count

38

eos

Eosinophils

39

ESR

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

40

G-CSF

Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor

41

HCT

Hematocrit

42

HGB

Hemoglobin

43

MCH

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin

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MCHC

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration

45

MCV

Mean Corpuscular Volume

46

mono

Monocyte

47

PCV

Packed Cell Volume

48

PLT

Platelet Count

49

PMN

Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil

50

PT

Prothrombin Time

51

PTT

Partial Thromboplastin Time

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RBC

Red Blood Cell

53

SR

Sedimentation Rate

54

seg

Segmented Mature White Blood Cell

55

WBC

White Blood Cell

56

Venapuncture / Phlebotomy

Withdrawal of blood for examination

57

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Common Screen for Hematocrit

58

Blood Indices

Measurement of size, volume, and content of RBC

59

Hematocrit

Measures packed red blood cells in a sample

60

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate / Sedimentation Rate

Test for rate at which red blood cells fall through plasma

61

Antiglobulin Test

Test for antibodies on red blood cells

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Blood Chemistry

Test plasma for various substances such as glucose and electrolytes

63

WBC Differential

Looks at number and type of leukocytes

64

Hemoglobin

Measures level of Hemoglobin in blood

65

Prothrombin Time (PT)

Test for coagulation defects

66

Dyscrasia

General term for any disease of the blood with abnormal material present

67

Anemia

General term for condition where RBC do not transport enough oxygen to the tissues

- Causes may be related to low number of cells or due to a low amount of hemoglobin

68

Common Types of Anemia

- Iron Deficiency
- Aplastic
- Pernicious
- Sickle Cell
- Hemolytic
- Posthemorrhagic

69

Hemophilia

Hereditary disorder in which there is a lack of clotting factor VIII

- Treated with medications & Blood Transfusions

70

Thrombocytopenia

Bleeding disorder with a lack of platelets

- Occurs in the condition called purpura, which is the presence of multiple tiny hemorrhages under skin

71

Pancytopenia

Low number of all blood cells

72

Hemochromatosis

Hereditary disorder that causes excessive iron to build up in the blood

73

Erythropenia

Low number of RBC

74

Poikilocytosis

Irregularly shaped red blood cells

75

Reticulocytosis

Abnormal number of immature RBC

76

Hemolysis

Breakdown in RBC membrane

77

Macrocytosis

Abnormally large RBC

78

Polycythemia

Abnormal increase in RBCs and Hemoglobin

79

Leukemia

Neoplastic disorder in which there is an excessive increase in WBC

80

Granulocytosis

Abnormal increase of granulocytes in the bloodstream, commonly seen during times of infection

81

Multiple Myeloma

Malignant tumor of bone marrow

82

Bone Marrow Biopsy

Needle inserted into the bone marrow cavity and bone marrow is removed for analysis

83

Albumin

Protein in Blood

84

Coagulation

Changing of a liquid (blood) into semi-solid

85

Erythropoietin

Hormone released by kidneys which stimulate RBC production

86

Serum

Liquid left after blood has clotted or after clotting factors are removed

87

SMA

Synonymous with Blood Chemistry

88

Anemia

Low RBC count or low Hematocrit

89

Anisocytosis

Condition of abnormal variation in the size of RBC

90

Hemolysis

Disorder of breakdown of RBC

- Lysis or rupture of erythrocytes

91

Macrocytosis

Abnormally large cell; specifically RBC

92

Microcytosis

Small RBC

93

Polycythemia

Abnormal increase in RBC/hematocrit level

94

Anticoagulant

Agent that prevents formation of blood clots

95

Coagulant

Clotting agent

96

Hemostatic

Agent that stops bleeding

97

Thrombolytic

Agent that dissolves clots

98

Remission

Disappearance of disease

99

Von Willebrands Disease

Hemorrhagic disorder with tendency to bleed from mucus membranes