Chapter 6 (5) - Cardiovascular Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 (5) - Cardiovascular Notes Deck (140):
0

Anastomosis

Connection of two blood vessels to allow blood flow between

1

Angioplasty

Opening a blocked vessel by balloon dilation

2

Endarterectomy

Surgical removal of diseased portion of lining of artery

3

Phlebotomy

Drawing blood from a vein

4

Valvotomy

Incision into a cardiac valve to correct an obstruction

5

Atrial Fibrillation

Arrhythmia that involve the atria

6

Aneurysm

Dilation of the wall of an artery

7

Asystole

Cardiac arrest

8

Clandication

Weakness and pain in legs during walking/activity due to decreased blood supply (relieved with rest)

9

Constriction

Narrowing of a vessel lumen

10

Embolus

Clot that moves from origin to clot elsewhere

Mass of foreign material (clot) blocking a blood vessel

11

Fibrillation

Random, chaotic heart rhythm

12

Flutter

Rapid regular heart rhythm

13

Ischemia

localized blood insufficiency caused by an obstruction

14

Infarct

Area of necrosis caused by lack of oxygen delivery due to obstruction of blood flow

15

Necrosis

Death of tissue/organ/part of organ due to irreversible damage (often due to Ischemia)

16

Tachycardia

Heart rate greater than 100bpm

17

Thrombosis

Clot in vessel

18

Endocarditits

Inflammation within the heart

19

Myocarditis

Inflammation of the heart muscle

20

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the heart sac

21

Cardiomyopathy

Disease of the heart muscle

22

Coronary Vasodilators

Dilate veins, arteries, coronary arteries;

Nitroglycerin

23

Beta Blockers

Slow heart rate, lower blood pressure, reduce contraction strength;

Propranolol/Inderal

24

Calcium Channel Blockers

Slow heart rate, lower Blood Pressure;

Verapamil

25

Thrombolytic

Dissolve blood clots

26

ACE Inhibitors

Ease heart pumping, dilate arteries

27

Diuretics

Promote water excretion

28

Inotropic

Increase cardiac contractility

29

Coronary Bypass Surgery (CABG)

Take a vein from other source in body and bypass arterial blockage

- Saphenous vein and mammary arteries commonly used as grafts

30

Thrombectomy

Surgical removal of a thrombus

31

Embolectomy

Surgical removal of an embolus

32

Endarterectomy

Surgical removal of the diseased portion of the lining of an artery

33

Valvuloplasty

Surgical reconstruction of a cardiac valve

34

Medications for Congestive Heart Failure

- ACE Inhibitor
- Diuretics
- Cardiotonics
- Vasoconstrictors

35

Medications for Hypertension (High BP)

- Vasodilators
- Diuretics
- ACE Inhibitors

36

Medications for Angina (Chest Pain)

- Nitrates
- Beta Blockers
- Calcium Channel Blockers

37

Medications for Rhythm Disorders

- Beta Blockers
- Calcium Channel Blockers

38

Hypertension

High Blood Pressure

39

Hypotension

Low Blood Pressure

40

Essential (Primary) Hypertension

Occurs without any specific reason

41

Secondary Hypertension

Comes from secondary cause, such as high salt intake or a tumor

42

Risk Factors to Developing CVD (Cardiovascular Disease)

- Poor Diet
- Smoking
- Lack of exercise

43

Arrhythmias

Abnormal rhythms of the heart

44

Atheroma

Plaque formation

45

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein

46

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Caused by plaque buildup in the arteries which feed the heart muscle

47

Cardiac Arrest

Sudden stopping of the heart

"Asystole"

48

Congestive Heart Failure

Occurs when "pump" fails and blood backs up

49

Tropipin

Protein found in heart and tests of these can diagnose a myocardial infarction faster than most other lab tests

50

LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)

Cholesterol that causes plaque buildup

51

HDL (High Density Lipoproteins)

Actually remove lipids from forming plaques, diminishes plaque buildup

52

Triglycerides

Lipid in blood that can plaque if too high

53

Angi(o)

Blood vessel

54

Aort(o)

Aorta

55

Arteri(o)

Artery

56

Ather(o)

Fatty matter

57

Atri(o)

Atrium

58

Cardi(o)

Heart

59

Hemangi(o)

Blood vessel

60

Pericardi(o)

Pericardium

61

Phleb(o)

Vein

62

Sphygm(o)

Pulse

63

Thromb(o)

Blood clot

64

Vas(o)

Blood vessel

65

Ven(o)

Vein

66

Aorta

Largest Artery in the body; exits the heart

67

Aortic Valve

Between the Left Ventricle and Aorta

68

Arteriole

Tiny artery connecting to capillaries

69

Artery

Thick-walled vessel in systemic circulation, carries oxygen

70

AV-node

Specialized part of the septum which conducts electrical signals

71

Carbon Dioxide

Waste material transported in venous vessels

72

Depolarization

Contracting state of myocardial tissue in hearts conducting system

73

Endothelium

Inner lining of arteries

74

Lumen

Channel inside an artery through which blood flows

75

Myocardium

Muscular layer of heart

76

Pacemaker

SA node; regulates heart rhythm

77

Polarization

Resting state of myocardial tissue

78

Repolarization

Recharging state

79

Saphenous Vein

Vein in leg which drains blood from leg toward Vena Cava

80

Venule

Small vein connecting to capillary and vein

81

AF

Atrial Fibrillation

82

AMI

Acute Myocardial Infarction (heart attack)

83

AS

Aortic Stenosis

84

AS CVD

Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

85

AV

Atrioventricular

86

BP

Blood Pressure

87

CAD

Coronary Artery Disease

88

CCU

Coronary Care Unit

89

CHF

Congestive Heart Failure

90

CO

Cardiac Output

91

CFK

Creatine Phosphokinase

92

CPR

Cardiopulmonary Recitation

93

CVA

Cerebrovascular Accident

94

DIC

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

95

DVT

Deep Venous Thrombosis

96

EKG

ECG

Electrocardiogram

97

Blood Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Systolic/Diastolic (Contraction/Relaxation)

98

Pulse Pressure

Difference between systolic and diastolic

120/80 is a pulse pressure of 40

99

Coronary Blood Supply

Blood circulation to the heart muscle made up of:

Right Coronary Artery
Left Coronary Artery, which branches to:
- Circumflex: wraps around
- Left Anterior Descending (LAD)

100

Pulmonary Circuit

1.) From RV, deoxygenated blood carried by Pulmonary Artery to lungs
2.) Blood picks up oxygen, drops of carbon dioxide
3.) Oxygen rich blood carried by 4 Pulmonary Veins to LA

101

Pulse

Created by muscular contraction of LV

102

Systemic Circulation

1.) Aorta leaves LV, takes oxygenated blood to cells of body
2.) Arteries, carry away from heart to arterioles
3.) Arterioles to Capillaries
4.) Capillary exchange O2/CO2, transfer to Venules
5.) Venules to Veins then back to heart

103

Carotid Artery

Supplies blood to the head, neck, and brain

104

Femoral Artery

Supplies blood to the thigh and legs

105

Renal Artery

Supplies blood to the kidneys

106

Pericardium

Tissue that surrounds the heart muscle

107

Septum

Divides the heart into right and left chambers

108

Pulmonary Artery

Only artery that carries deoxygenated blood to the lung

109

Pulmonary Vein

Highest O2 concentration from lung to heart

110

Capillary

Smallest blood vessel and serve as a transfer station between arteries and veins

111

Conduction System (Electrical flow of heart)

1.) SA-Node
2.) Atrial Chambers
3.) AV Node
4.) Bundle of HIS
5.) Right/Left Purkinje Fibers
6.) Ventricle Chambers

112

Layers of Heart

Epicardium (Pericardium) - outermost layer
Myocardium - middle layer of muscle tissue (thickest)
Endocardium - inner layer (contiguous with valves)

113

Order of Circulation

1.) Superior and Inferior Vena Cava (SVC - IVC)
2.) Right Atrium
3.) Tricuspid Valve
4.) Right Ventricle
5.) Semilunar Pulmonic Valve to Pulmonary Artery
6.) Lungs then back by Pulmonary Vein
7.) Left Atrium
8.) Mitral (Ventricle Bicuspid) Valve
9.) Left Ventricle
10.) Aortic Valve to the Aorta

114

Contraction Phases

Polarization - Resting phase
Repolarization - Recharging phase
Depolarization - Contracting phase

115

ECHO

Echocardiogram

116

ETT

Exercise Tolerance Test

117

LDH

Lactate Dehydrogenase

118

MR

Mitral Regurgitation

119

MUGA

"heart scan"

120

PAC

Premature Atrial Contraction

121

PVC

Premature Ventricle Contraction

122

VT

Ventricular Tachycardia

123

TPA

Tissue Plasminogen Activator

124

Foramen Ovale

Opening in the septum between the Atria; allows blood flow from the Right to Left Atrium

125

Ductus Arteriosus

Connection between pulmonary Artery and Aorta; Allows fetal oxygenated blood to bypass the "non-functioning" lungs

126

Ductus Venosus

Connection between umbilical vein and fetus' inferior vena cava; Allows fetal circulation to bypass fetal liver to go straight to the fetal heart

127

Umbilical Cord

2 Arteries, 1 Vein

128

Auscultation

Allowing you to listen to abnormal heart sounds; murmur, buit, gallop

129

Sphymomanometer

Blood Pressure diagnostic

130

EKG

Measures electrical flow through heart

131

Stress Test

Adds exercise (stress) to EKG tracing, BP monitoring, pulse

- Detects poor blood flow to the heart/abnormal heart function

132

Holter Monitor

Portable, extended (24hr) continuous EKG

133

Angiography

x-ray of arteries f the heart (angiogram)

134

Arteriography

x-ray of specific artery (arteriogram)

135

Aortography

x-ray of the Aorta

136

Venography

x-ray of specific vein

137

Ventriculogram

x-ray of one or both ventricle

138

Doppler Ultrasound

Measures blood flow in certain blood vessels

139

PTCA

Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty

- Balloon catheter is inserted into a blocked blood vessel to increase the blood flow of that vessel