Chapter 9 (10) - Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 (10) - Urinary System Deck (73):
1

Urinary System

2 Kidneys, each with a ureter that leads to the bladder. From the bladder a urethra and meatus at the end of the urethra to let the urine out.

2

Excretory System

Balances water and electrolytes

- Removes waste from blood; excretes in urine

3

Kidneys

Retroperitoneal - Behind abdominal cavity, beside vertebrate

2 Functions:
- Form urine for excretion
- Retain essential substances in blood
- Water, Electrolytes, pH, Reabsorption

4

Kidney Anatomy

Renal Cortex - Outer portion, just inside renal capsule

Renal Medulla - Middle portion of the Kidney

Renal Pyramid - Made up of nephrons

Renal Hilum - Where Renal Artery, Vein, and Urethra enter/exit

Filters:
- Water, Salts (sodium, potassium), Sugar (glucose)
- Nitrogenous Toxins: Urea, Creatine, Uric Acid

5

Renal Artery/Vein

Incoming Blood / outgoing blood, cleanest blood

6

Functional Unit of the Kidney

Nephron, about 1 million/kidney

7

Nephron Anatomy

- Renal Corpuscle
- Glomerulus:
- Capillaries - filtration of blood (by pressure)
- Bowman's Capsule:
- Filtered Urine Captured
- 1st part of renal tubule
- Renal Tubule: Carries filtered fluid
- Proximal
- Loop of Henle
- Distal
- Collecting Duct
- Collecting Ducts Become:
- Renal Pelvis
- Ureter
- Bladder
- Urethra

8

Reabsorption w/in Kidneys occurs in:

Through a network of capillaries:
- Proximal Tube
- Loop of Henle
- Distal Tubule

Reabsorb - Water and substances needed for body
- Sodium, Glucose, Nutrients

9

Bladder

Hallow muscular organ that stores urine until excreted

10

Bladder Anatomy

- Trigone - Area where urethra is exiting and ureters are coming in

- Detrusor Muscle - Muscle in wall of bladder

- Sphincter Muscle - Around urethra, able to control and relax to urinate or contract to hold urine

- Micturition - Voiding (emptying bladder)

11

Cali (o) / Calic (o)

Calix

12

Cyst (o)

Bladder

13

Glomerul (o)

Glomerulus

14

Meat (o)

Meatus

15

Nephr (o)

Kidney

16

Pyel (o)

Renal Pelvis

17

Ren (o)

Kidney

18

Ur (o)

Urine

19

Ureter (o)

Ureter

20

Uria

of urine

21

Vesic (o)

Bladder, when describing something in relation to the bladder

22

ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone

23

ARF

Acute Renal Failure

24

BUN

Blood Urea Nitrogen

25

CRF

Chronic Renal Failure

26

ESRD

End-stage Renal Failure

27

ESWL

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

28

IVP

Intravenous Pyelogram

29

K+

Potassium

30

KUB

Kidney, Ureter, Bladder

31

Na+

Sodium

32

pH

Power of Hydrogen concentration

33

SG

Specific Gravity

34

UA

Urinalysis

35

UTI

Urinary Tract Infection

36

Urinalysis

Urine Examination
- Physical, Chemical and Microscopic Properties

37

Foley Catheter

Anchored catheter for period of time

38

Findings from Urinalysis

- Acetone; Keytones: Diabetes, starvation, dehydration

- Protein: Damage to glomerulus with leakage of protein (proteinuria)

Pus (leukocytes): Bladder or kidney infection

Blood (RBC): Kidney stones, severe infection, tumor

Bilirubin: Indicates liver disease or gallbladder obstruction

39

Blood Uria Nitrogen (BUN)

Goes up when kidney function decreases or fails

40

Creatinine

Elevated when kidneys not filtering toxins

41

Electrolyte levels

Sodium, potassium and other electrolytes are abnormal when kidneys fail

42

KUB

Straight x-ray without dyes

43

IUP

X-ray with dye

44

Cystoscope

Put a scope in bladder through urethra

45

Retrograde Pyelogram (RP)

Injecting dye backward, bladder up

46

Voiding Cystourethrogram

X-ray taken during urination to examine the flow of urine through the system

47

Renogram

Kidney Scan

48

Hemodialysis

Mechanical filtration of blood for patients in kidney failure

49

Peritoneal Dialysis

Catheter in abdomen, filter blood through bag than machine

50

ESWL

Lithotripsy, breakdown of kidney stones

51

Urinary Tract Infection

Infection of bladder, urethra, or kidney (pyelonephritis)

- Dysuria, Urgency, Frequency

- Hematuria

52

Nephrolithiasis

Stones (calculi) of calcium which precipitate in urine and block ureter

- Hematuria and pain

53

Nephritis

Inflammation of the kidney

54

Pyelitis

Inflammation of the Renal Pelvis

55

Nephrosis

Protein leakage into urine resulting in edema

56

Hydronephrosis

Dilation of renal pelvis and calyces, due to obstruction of water

57

PCKD

Genetic disease causing multiple cysts in both kidneys; leading to high BP and kidney failure

58

Uremia

Excess of urea and other toxins in blood due to kidney failure

59

Renal Cell Cancer

Malignant tumor of kidney

60

Bladder Cancer

Malignant tumor in bladder

61

Cystocele

Herniation of bladder

62

Cystolith

Stone in the bladder

63

Albuminaria

Presence of albumin (protein) in urine

64

Anuria

Lack of urine formation

65

Dysuria

Painful urination

66

Enuresis

Urinary incontinence, typically at night

67

Hematuria

Blood in urine

68

Hydronephrosis

Dilated kidney due to obstruction

69

Ketonuria

Presence of ketones in urine

70

Nephroblastoma

Malignant tumor of kidney in children

71

Nocturia

Frequent urination at night

72

Oliguria

Decreased urine production

73

Uremia (Azotemia)

Toxins in blood (nitrogen based) due to kidney failure