Chpt 15 (12) - Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt 15 (12) - Endocrine System Deck (76):
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Endocrine System

Glands which through secretion of hormones control and regulate physiology

- Maintenance of homeostasis
- Hormones (secreted by endocrine glands); bind to target receptors on target organs >> response (effect)
- Target organ: contains target receptors for hormones (specific) lock-key

1

Hormone - Target Receptor Relationship

- Hormone; secreted into bloodstream (no ducts)

- Binds to target receptor on target gland/organ
- Specific
- Key in lock theory
- 3D molecular interaction

2

Hypothalamus

Controls output of pituitary gland

3

Pituitary

Controls output of most all other Endocrine Organs

4

Thyroid

Metabolism

5

Parathyroid

Blood calcium and phosphate levels

6

Adrenal Medulla

Stress reaction (fight/flight)

7

Adrenal Cortex

Electrolyte levels, immune function, homeostasis, long-term blood glucose control

8

Pancreas

Short-term blood glucose control

9

Pineal Gland

Sleep cycle

10

Ovaries

Female sex steroids (estrogen and progesterone)

11

Testes

Male Sex Steroids (testosterone)

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Thymus

Immune (T&B) cell production

13

"Hormones" vs Local Tissue Hormones

- Traditional Endocrine System
- Secreted into blood stream
- Long range effects @ target organ
- Systemic effects (body wide)
- "Federal Government"

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Hormones vs "Local Tissue Hormones"

- Secreted from local tissue
- Effect surrounding cells (neighbor cells)
- Short range effect on local tissue only
- Minor, local control
- Regional/segmented effects
- "State/Municipal Government"

15

Prostaglandin

Local tissue hormone example

- Local communication
- Cervix (start labor)
- Lung (inflammatory asthma)
- Inflammatory Response
- Pain Signaling
- Sub-types: PG-A, PG-E, PG-F
- Influence depends on type

16

Hypothalamus / Pituitary (HPO) Axis

Hypothalamus - brain structure involved with monitoring homeostasis
- Secretes "releasing factors"; stimulate pituitary
- Produces ADH and Oxycotin - released from posterior pituitary

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Anterior Pituitary

Releasing factors:
- ACTH - Adrenal Corticotropin Hormone
- TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
- FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone
- LH - Leutenizing Hormone
- GH - Growth Hormone

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Posterior Pituitary

Releasing Factors:
- ADH - Antidiuretic Hormone
- Oxytocin

19

Pituitary

- Control of most endocrine organs

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Sella Turcica

- Bone structure pituitary sets in

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Thyroid

Sets below larynx (Inferior)
- 2 lobes (Isthmus in middle)
- Thyroid Hormones:
- Thyroxin (T4) - most abundant
- Triiodothyroninc (T3) - most potent
- Calcitonin - Calcium into bone; builds bone
- Controls metabolic rate

22

Thyroid Hormones (T3 & T4)

Effect most all cells in body

- Balance energy production and consumption (ATP)
- Metabolism = sum total of all chemical rxns in body

23

Parathyroid - Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

- Secretes by 4 glands at back of back of thyroid

- PTH increases the blood calcium level
- Controls the balance of Ca++ between serum and bone
- Big effect on nerve and muscle functions

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Thymus

Secretes Thymosin
- Located in Mediastinum, between lungs
- Results in lymphocyte (T-cell) production in lymph nodes
- Increases cell mediated immunity

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Adrenal Glands

Supra-renal (sit atop kidneys)

Cortex - Secrete glucocorticoid (corticosteroids) such as cortisone
- Metabolic Control, Blood Sugar, Aldosterone
Medulla - Secrete epinephrine
- fight or flight

26

Pancreas

Exocrine Function - Digestive Enzymes (Lipase, Trypsin)
Endocrine Function - Islet cells
- Insulin - decreases blood sugar (glucose)
- Glucagon - raises blood glucose
- Insulin released proportionally to document of blood sugar
- Glucagon released as blood sugar lowers to raise blood sugar
- Breaks down large molecules to smaller for sugar

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Ovaries

Paired female gonads
- Egg (gamete) production
- Female hormone production/secretion
- Estrogen / Progesterone
- Hormone cycle, Menses, Pregnancy maintenance

28

Testicles

Sperm production in seminiferous tubules
- Testosterone production
- Androgens (testosterone)
- Musulinizing
- Secondary sexual characteristics
- Muscle and Bone growth
- Libido / aggression
Testosterone is a powerful builder of muscle & bone (men & women)

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Aden (o)

Gland

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Adren (o)

Adrenal Gland

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Gluc (o)

Glucose

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Glyc (o)

Sugar (glycose)

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Gonad (o)

Sex glands (ovaries or testes)

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Pancreat (o)

Pancreas

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Thyr (o)

Thyroid gland

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ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

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ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone

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CRH

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

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DM

Diabetes Mellitus

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OT

Oxytocin

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FSH

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

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GH

Growth Hormone

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GTT

Glucose Tolerance Test

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HCG

Human Chorionic Gomadotropic

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Only Endocrine Glands examined by palpation?

Thyroid and Testes

46

Blood Hormone Levels

Cortisol, T3 or T4, GH ...

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Oral GTT

Orally ingest sugar; measure insulin after about an hour

48

Hemoglobin A1C

Blood glucose over 30-40days

49

Post Prandial Blood Sugar

Blood glucose after eating

50

Fasting Blood Glucose

Blood glucose after not having eaten

51

Thyroid Function Test (TFT)

THS, T3, T4 levels

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Thyroid Scan

Imaging test for thyroid

53

Endocrine & Nervous Systems

Nervous - immediate short lived response

Endocrine - Slightly slower onset and longer duration

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Hypersecretion

Abnormally high amounts of a hormone secreted with secondary effects

Hypercortisolism - High amounts of cortisol
Hyperthyroidism - High levels of T3 & T4
Hypothyroidism - Low levels of T3 & T4
Hypoparathyroidism - Low PTH

55

Excessive GH Secretion

Acromegaly - After growth plates close (21yrs)
- Abnormal growth of bones in face, feet, hands
- Metabolic derangements
Gigantism - Before age 21
- Excessive height; overgrowth of all body tissues
- Sexual and mental effects

56

GH Hyposecretion

Hypopituitarism = dwarfism

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Diabetes Insipidus

Hyposecretion of ADH
- Results in frequent urination
- Hypotension and dehydration can occur

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Diabetes Mellitus

Under-secretion of insulin; High Blood Glucose
SIADH - Excessive ADH secretion
- Water retention: High Blood Pressure
Goiter - Enlarged thyroid gland due to thyroid dysfunction
- Can be from hyper or hypothyroidism (secretion)
- Hashimotos Thyroiditis: Autoimmune destruction of thyroid

59

Hyperthyroidism

Excessive T3/T4
- Tachycardia; Anxiety; Restlessness

Thyroid Storm - Severe Hyperthyroidism

Grave's Disease - Autoimmune; antibodies mimic TSH
- Increased release of T3/T4; Hyperthyroidism

60

Myxedema

Severe hypothyroidism
- Swelling in legs/hands; slowed response, dry skin, fatigue, weight gain, cognitive slowness

61

Hypoparathyroidism

Deficient PTH (hypocalcemia)

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Cushing's Disease

Hyper-secretion of cortisol (hyper-adrenalism)

From: ACTH Hyper-secretion from pituitary; Adrenal cortex tumor secreting high amounts of cortisol

63

Addison's Disease

Hypo-secretion of cortisol

From: ACTH Hypo-secretion (pituitary); or destruction of adrenal cortex

64

Diabetes Mellitus IDDM: Type 1

Onset before 30yrs

- Low or no production of insulin
- Hypoinsulinism > Hyperglycemia
- Glucose cannot get into cells (due to low insulin)
- High levels of glucose in blood (>120)
- Body burns fat and protein instead
- Glucosuria (glucose in urine)

Rx: Insulin injection

65

Diabetes Mellitus NIDDM: Type II

Adult onset (30-65yrs)

- Insulin levels maybe normal
- Cells become resistant to insulin
- Glucose cannot get into cells; hyperglycemia results
- Obesity is risk factor

66

GDM: Gestational DM

- Occurs 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy
- Disappears after delivery; 20% may develop type 2 later in life

67

DM Complications

- Long standing DM results in several secondary complications, due to vascular damage in small blood vessels

- Diabetes Nephropathy: Renal disease and progressive kidney failure from "glomerulosclerosis"

- Diabetes Neuropathy: Loss of nerve function in extremities

- Retinopathy: Damage to retina of eye scarring and exudates in retina; blindness results

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Adenectomy

Removal of a gland

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Adrenalectomy

Removal of adrenal gland

70

Hypophysectomy

Removal of pituitary gland (usually due to cancer)

71

Pancreatectomy

Excision of removal of pancreas

72

Thymectomy

Excision of thymus gland

73

Corticosteroids

Treat inflammatory diseases/symptoms

74

Anti-hyperglycemic

Lowers blood sugar or increases sensitivity to insulin

75

Hormone Replacement Therapy

- Treatment with Estrogen and Progesterone
- To treat climacteric symptoms of menopause, Osteopenia