Chapter 8 (7) - Neuro Video Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 (7) - Neuro Video Notes Deck (82):
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CNS

Central Nervous System, contains brain and spinal cord

Responsible for: Controlling, receiving, and interpreting all stimuli

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PNS

Peripheral Nervous System; nerves that leave the spinal cord and intervate the body.

12 Cranial nerves intervate head

31 Spinal nerves intervate body

Somatic = voluntary
Autonomic = involuntary

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Neurons

Nerve Cells
- Dendrites: Fibers that sense and bring impulses toward cell body
- Cell Body: Main processing center of cell
- Axon: Single branch which conducts nerve impulses away from cell body

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Myelin Sheath & Neurilemma

Are coverings for the neurons

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Synapse

Space between Axon of one neuron and dendrite of another or Axon of one neuron and muscle fiber

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Neurotransmitter

Chemical release from first neurons Axon into space (synapse) that then excites second neuron

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All neurons 2 basic properties

- Excitability
- Conductivity

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Neuroglia Cells

Astrocytes - Starshaped cells that maintain the nutrient and chemical levels in neuron

Oligodendroglia - Produce myelin and help in supporting the neurons within CNS

Microglia - Phagocytes, they remove debris

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Efferent Neurons

(Motor) Convey information from CNS to muscles and glands

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Afferent Neurons

(Sensory) Carry information from sensory receptors to the CNS

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Interneurons

Carry and process sensory information

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Schwann Cells

Produce Myelin in PNS

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4 Divisions of CNS

- Brainstem
- Cerebellum
- Cerebrum
- Diencephalon

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Brainstem

Connects the higher brain to Spinal Cord
- Lower brain functions: Automatic NS
- Midbrain, Pons, Medulla
Midbrain - Involves visual reflexes
Pons - Controls certain respiratory function
Medulla Oblongata - Regulate heart and lung functioning, swallowing, coughing, vomiting, sneezing

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Cerebellum

Coordinates muskulotskeletal movement to maintain coordination, balance and posture

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Cerebrum

85% mass of the brain, 2 hemispheres, contains grey and white matter

- Consciousness, language, motor control, logic

Frontal, Parietal, Occipital and Temporal Lobes

Corpus Callosum connects the two hemispheres

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Diencephalon

Deep portion of the brain
- Thalamus, Hypothalamus
- Relay center, integration of brain functions, sensation integration
- Integration of blood pressure, temp control and behavioral function

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Brain

Controls bodily function and interaction with outside world

Weighs about 3lbs, 75% water, with over 100B neurons

Divisions are: Brainstem, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Cerebrum

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Cerebrospinal Fluid

(CSF) Fills space between brain and cranium

- Delivers nutrients and cushions brain

- Made in ventricles

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Spinal Cord

Extends from Medulla to L2 within vertebral column and submits nerves of PNS

Regions:
- Cervical: Neck
- Brachial: Lower neck and axilla
- Lumbar: Legs and pelvis
- Sacral: Pelvis

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Meninges

3 layers of connective tissue that covers Brain and Spinal Column (SC)
- Dura Mater (outer, nearest cranium)
- Arachnoid Mater (contains CSF)
- Pia Mater (closest to Brain/SC)

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Cranial Nerves (12 pairs)

I Olfactory - Sense of smell

II Optic - Sense of vision

V Trigeminal - Motor and sensory for facial muscles

VII Facial - Taste, facial expression, salvary glands, tears

X Vagus - Speech, swallowing, heart, smooth muscle, many glands

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Somatic Nervous System

Responsible for receiving and processing sensory input from skin, muscles, tendons, joints, eyes, tongue, nose and ears as well as excite the voluntary contraction of skeletal muscles

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Automatic Nervous System

Carries impulses from the CNS to glands, various smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and various membranes

- Stimulates organs, glands and senses

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Sympathetic Division of ANS

Operates when body is under stress to activate responses necessary to react to dangerous situations

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Parasympathetic Division of ANS

Operates to keep the body in homeostasis or balance under normal conditions

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Cerebell(o)

Cerebellum

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Cerebr(o)

Cerebrum

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Crani(o)

Cranium

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Encephal(o)

Brain

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Gangli(o)

Ganglion

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Gli(o)

Neuroglia

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Mening(o)

Meninges

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Myel(o)

Bone marrow

Spinal Cord

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Neur(o)

Nerve

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Spin(o)

Spine

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Thalam(o)

Thalamus

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Vag(o)

Vagus Nerve

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Ventricul(o)

Ventricle

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Ach

Acetylcholine

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ALS

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's)

Degenerative disease of motor neurons lending to loss of muscle control and death

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BBB

Blood Brain Barrier

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CNS

Central Nervous System

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CP

Cerebral Palsy

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CSF

Cerebral Spinal Fluid

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CAT scan

Computerized (axial) Tomography

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CVA

Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke)

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CVD

Cerebrovascular Disease

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PNS

Peripheral Nervous System

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Absence Seizure

Mild epileptic seizure consists of brief disorientation

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Agnosia

Inability to receive and understand simple stimuli

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Aphasia

Loss of speech

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Apraxia

Inability to use familiar objects

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Aura

Symptoms which precede seizure

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Cerebellitis

Inflammation of cerebellum

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Dopamine

Brain chemical (neurotransmitter), lack of which causes Parkinson's

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Dysphasia

Difficult speech

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Gait

Manner of walking

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Grandmal Seizure

Tonic-clonic seizure

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Myelitis

Spinal Chord inflammation

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Neuritis

Inflammation of nerve

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Palsy

Paralysis (partial or complete)

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Parasthesia

Abnormal sensation (tingling)

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Radiculitis

Inflammation of spinal nerve roots

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Sciatica

Inflammation of Sciatic Nerve

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Somnolence

Depressed mental state noted by extreme sleepiness

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Syncope

"Fainting", sudden loss of consciousness

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Tics

Twitching movements; repetitive motions

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Tonic-clonic

Seizure; convulsions with spasmodic jerking of limbs and LOC

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TIA

"Mini-stoke", short neurological event with recovery (no permanent neurological damage)

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Gliomas

Tumors that arise from Neuroglia

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Meningiomas

Tumors that arise from the meninges

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Ganglion

Any group of nerve cells bunched together to form a cyst

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Lobectomy

Removal of a portion of the brain

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Craniectomy

Removal of part of the skull

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Neuroplasty

Surgical repair of a nerve

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Neurectomy

Surgical removal of a nerve

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Analgesics

Relieve Pain

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Anesthetics

Numb body locally or generally

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Narcotics

Relieve pain by inducing a stuporous or euphoric state

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Anticonvulsants

Treat epilepsy

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Sedatives & Hypnotics

Relax the nerves and sometimes induce sleep