Chapter 7 (6) - Respiratory Video Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 (6) - Respiratory Video Notes Deck (144):
0

Adam's Apple

Thyroid cartilage

1

Adenoids

Lymphoid tissue in nasopharynx

2

Alveolus

Smallest air sacks, where diffusion of O2/CO2 occur

3

Apex

Upper aspect of lung

4

Base

Bottom of lung

5

External Respiration

Exchange of air between atmosphere and body

6

Glottis

Opening between vocal cords into trachea

7

Hypopharynx

Laryngopharynx

8

Intercostal Muscle

Muscles between ribs

9

Larynx

"Voice Box;" Between pharynx and trachea

10

Mediastinum

Medium portion of thoracic cavity

Includes: Heart, Esophagus, Trachea, Lymph nodes, Thymus Gland

11

Nasopharynx

Part of throat above soft palate

12

Pleura

Double layer membrane surrounding lungs
- Visceral covers lung
- Parietal attaches to thoracic cavity

13

Septum

Cartilaginous division

14

Soft Palate

Muscular sheet separates nasopharynx from rest of pharynx

15

Trachea

"windpipe;" From larynx to Carina (division of trachea to lungs)

16

Laryngeal Carcinoma

Cancerous tumor of larynx (voice box)

17

Mediastinotomy

Incision into the Mediastinum

18

Capnography

Recording of CO2 levels

19

Phrenitis

Inflammation of diaphragm

20

Rhinorrhea

Flowing from the nose, runny nose

21

Thoracoplasty

Surgical repair of the chest

22

Tracheomalacia

Thinning of trachea

23

Dyspnea

Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath

24

Eupnea

Normal breathing pattern

25

Bradypnea

Slow breathing; less than 12/min

26

Tachypnea

Fast breathing; greater than 20/min

27

Hypopnea

Shallow breathing

28

Hypernea

Abnormal deep breathing

29

Apnea

Absence of breathing

30

Orthopnea

Difficulty breathing while lying down

31

Cheyne-Strokes

Irregular, deep and labored breathing followed by apnea

32

Crackle/Rales

Rice-krispy crackling which occurs with pneumonia (fluid in the lungs)

33

Wheezes

Heard during asthma attack; COPD

- Narrowed airways cause whistling-like sound due to obstructed airways

34

Rhonchi

Musical tones, with bronchitis and asthma

35

Stridor

Inspiration tone from obstructed upper airway

36

Dysphonia

Hoarseness from laryngitis

37

Hyperventilation

Excessive breathing in and out; caused by anxiety or overexertion

38

Hypoventilation

Low movement of air in and out

Leads to buildup of CO2 in blood

39

Hypercapnia

Excessive CO2 in blood

40

Hypoxemia

Deficient O2 in blood

41

Hypoxia

Deficient amount of O2 in the tissues

42

Lower Respiratory System

Trachea down
- Trachea
- Bronchi
- Bronchioles
- Alveoli

43

Epiglottitis

Inflammation of the epiglottis; in children (2-5yrs) from infection

44

Laryngotracheobronchitis

Inflammation of the throat, lower respiratory tract

45

Pansinusitis

Inflammation of all the sinus'
- Frontal
- Maxillary
- Ethmoid

46

Pleuritis

Pleurisy, inflammation of the lining of the lungs

47

Pneumonitis

Inflammation of the lungs

48

Hemoptysis

Lung and Bronchial hemorrhage with coughing up blood

49

Atelectasis

Collapse of small arteries

50

Tuberculosis

Lung infection from bacteria tuberculi

51

Lung Abscess

Collection of pus in lung

52

Pulmonary Edema

Fluid in air sacs which interrupt exchange of gasses

53

Pneumothorax

Collapsed lung, air accumulates around lung

54

Endotracheal Intubation

The insertion of a tube through the nose or mouth, pharynx, larynx, and into the trachea to establish an airway

55

Hemothorax

Blood in pleural cavity

56

Bronchodialators

Dilate the bronchial walls

57

Expectorants

Promote coughing and expulsion of mucus

58

Antitussive

Relieve coughing

59

Ventilators

Breathing substitute for patient who can't breathe on own

60

Nebulizers

Deliver medication through mouth into lungs (think inhaler)

61

Empyema

Pus in the pleural cavity

62

Pleural Effusion

Escape of fluid in the pleural cavity

63

Pneumoconiosis

Caused by dust in lungs

64

Anthracosis

Caused by coal dust

65

Asbestosis

Caused by asbestos in lungs

66

Silicosis

Caused by silica dust from grinding rocks or glass

67

Cystic Fibrosis

Disease of exocrine glands that causes secretion of abnormally thick mucus which leads to chronic obstruction

68

Adelectosis

Collapsed alveoli leading to collapse of a lung or part of a lung

69

Chronic Destructive Pulmonary Disease

Any disease with obstruction to bronchial tubes

70

Asthma

Causes a narrowing of Bronchi leading to dyspnea, wheezing, coughing

71

Methods used to diagnose respiratory disorders

-Auscultation - listen with a stethoscope
- Assess Respiratory Rate
- Percussion - knocking on chest and listening
- Sputum Analysis - Cough up mucus (sputum) and analyze under scope

72

Normal adult respiratory rate is

15-20 respirations per minute

73

Abnormalities, such as masses and restricted blood flow, detected by:

- Chest x-ray
- MRI
- Lung Scans

74

Structures of respiratory tract can be observed by:

- Endoscopy
- Bronchoscopy

75

Laboratory Tests include:

- Throat cultures
- Sputum Sample
- Arterial Blood Gases

76

Adenoid (o)

Adenoid; gland

77

Alveol (o)

Alveolus

78

Bronch(o)

Bronchus

79

Bronchiol(o)

Bronchiole

80

Capn(o)

CO2

81

Epiglott(o)

Epiglottis

82

Laryng(o)

Larynx

83

Lob(o)

Lobe of the lung

84

Mediastin(o)

Mediastinum

85

Nas(o)

Nose

86

Or(o)

Mouth

87

Ox(o)

O2

88

Pharyng(o)

Pharynx

89

Phon(o)

Voice, Sound

90

Phren(o)

Diaphragm

91

Pleur(o)

Pleura

92

Pneum(o)

Air

93

Rhin(o)

Nose

94

Spir(o)

Breathing

95

Steth(o)

Chest

96

Thorac(o)

Thorax

97

ABG

Arterial Blood Gas

98

AFB

Acid Fast Bacillus

99

A&P

Auscultation & Percussion

100

ARD

Acute Respiratory Disease

101

ARDS

Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome

102

ARF

Adult Respiratory Failure

103

AP

Anteroposterior

104

BS

Breathing Sounds

105

COPD

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

106

CPR

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

107

CTA

Clear to Auscultation

108

CXR

Chest x-ray

109

DOE

Dyspnea on Exertion (short of breath with activity)

110

DPT

Dipheria, Pertussis, Tetanus

111

ET Tube

Endotracheal Intubation tube

112

FEV

Forced Expiratory Volume

113

FVC

Forced Vital Capacity

114

IMV

Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation

115

IPPB

Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing

116

LLL

Left Lower Lobe

117

LUL

Left Upper Lobe

118

MDI

Metered Dose Inhaler

119

PA

Posteroanterior (direction for x-ray, from posterior to anterior)

120

PCP

Pneumocystis Carini Pneumonia

121

PEEP

Positive End Expiration Pressure

122

PFT

Pulmonary Function Test (measure mechanics of breathing)

123

RLL

Right Lower Lobe

124

RUL

Right Upper Lobe

125

SIDS

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

126

SOB

Short of Breath

127

TB

Tuberculosis

128

URI

Upper Respiratory Infection

129

V/Q Scan

Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

130

Pleural Cavity

Space between the 2 layers of the pleura

131

Right Lung

3 Lobes: Superior, Medial, Inferior

132

Left Lung

2 Lobes: Superior, Inferior

133

Air Passageway

Air, Nose, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Blood Stream

- Inhalation requires the diaphragm to move inferior
- Exhalation requires the diaphragm to move superior

134

Choking

Occurs occasionally when a person swallows and inhales simultaneously where some food enters the larynx

- Abominable Thrust Maneuver one way to save from choking

135

Vocal Chords

Size and Thickness determine pitch and sound
- Men = Thick and Long for low pitch
- Women = Short and Thin for high pitch

136

True Vocal Chords

Run Vertical and open to the Glottis

137

False Vocal Chords

Epithelial to either side of True Vocal Chords

138

External Respiration

Exchange of air between atmosphere and body (cells)

139

Internal Respiration

Bringing O2 into the cells and ridding the cells of CO2

Includes: Lungs, Respiratory Tract, Muscles that move diaphragm & Chest Wall

140

Cilia

Small, hairlike fibers that constantly move mucus and foreign particles up away from lungs

141

Inspiration

Brings air from outside into nose and mouth; Inhalation

142

Nose

2 Nares divided by Septum.

Warms, Filters, and Moistens Air

143

Passage of Air

- Enters through Nares (nostrils) where its warmed, moistened, filtered
- Enters into Nasopharynx, where adenoids are located
- Enters into Oropharynx, where tonsils are located
- Enters into Laryngopharynx (hypopharynx), where divides to esophagus and trachea
- Divides to Right and Left Bronchi at the Cerani
- Into Bronchioles
- Into Alveoli, where air exchange occurs