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1

Explain the law of thermodynamics

Clients wanting to lose weight must burn more than they consume.
Clients wanting to gain must consume more than they burn
Clients wanting to stay the same need to consume the same amt of calories they burn off

2

PT scope of practice when it comes to nutrition

Refer clients w/ health issues to physicians
No written diets

Can provide:
food prep
Healthy snacks
statistical data
vit and min as essential nutrients
Food guidance systems (My plate)
Carb protein and fat basics
nutrients contained in food or supps
Importance of water and hydration status

3

Unit of expression of energy equal to 1,000 calorie
Amount of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 kilogram or liter of water 1 degrees Celsius

Kilocalorie

4

Calories tell us what?

How much energy is contained in food

5

Calorie of Carbs, Fats, Protein, and Alcohol

4,9,4,7

6

Amount of energy spent on average, in a typical day

TEE

7

TEE Total Ennergy expenditure is found by including these 3 things

RMR
TEF
Physical activity

8

Amount of energy expended at rest; account for 70%

RMR

9

Amnt of energy expended above RMR as a result of the processing of food for storage or use

Thermic effect of Food (TEF)

10

How much does TEF account for

6-10%

11

Amount of energy expended above RMR and TEF

Physical activity

12

How much does physical activity account for in a sedentary person

20%

13

Factors that affect RMR

Age, sex, genes, body comp, meds, smoking, etc

14

Builds and repairs body tissue

Protein

15

What are proteins made up of

Amino Acides

16

How many essential and non essential amino acids

20 total
8 essential

17

Explain diff b/w essential and non essential acid

Essential: must get from our diet
Non essential: Can make within body

18

Protein has to be broken down into what before it can be absorbed. Explain the process

Amino Acids
Protein via mouth
Stomach:Protein is denatured (broken down) into smaller peptide chains
Intestines: Break peptides into amino acids that can be absorbed in to the bloodstream, (TRI, DIP AMINO)
Bloodstream: body uses the amino acids to build muscle , convert into energy if needed (Gluconeogenesis), or if excess of calories will be stored as fat.

19

Protein sources come in two forms

Complete and Incomplete

20

Define and give an example of a complete protein

Contains all essential amino acids, Meats and diary products

21

Define and give example of an incomplete protein

Low or lacking essential amino acids. Peanut butter

22

What is the limiting factor

Amino acid missing in the smallest amounts. Lac

23

Food lacking amino acid that is not combined with a source high enough in the missing amino acid

the body will only be able to synthesize protein until the limiting amino acid runs out

24

Requirements for protein increase when

Exercise and when overall energy intake (calories) decrease. This way it will be used as energy

25

Excess calories protein will be stored as what

fat

26

Adequate carb levels spare protein for

tissue building and repair

27

What % of protein should account for overall calories

10-35%

28

What else does protein provide, especially in a deficit

satiety

29

Very high protein about 35% is not recommend, what are the reason

higher intake of saturated fat
low fiber intake
decreased glyocogen stores
increased urea production
Dehydration

30

What is the recommended protein intake for a sedentary adult

0.8kg/lb or 0.4 g/ lb

31

What is the recommended protein intake for a strength athlete

1.2-1.7 kg/lb or 0.5-0.8g/lb

32

What is recommoneded protein intake for endurance athlete

1-2-1.4 or 0.5-0.6g/lb

33

Sugars, starches and fibers

Carbs

34

primary energy source for all body function and muscular extertion

Carbs

35

Two types of carbs

Simple and complex

36

Simple carbs (types)

Monosaccharide(glucose, fructose, galactose)
Disaccharide(Sucrose,lactose, maltose)

37

Ex of a monosaccharide

Honey, fruit

38

Ex of a disaccharide

table sugar and milk

39

Type of complex carb

polysaccharides (starch)

40

The rate at which a carb raises blood glucose and the rate at which insulin increases

GI index

41

High fiber

Decrease GI, longer to digest? Check this

42

What is the preferred source of energy

Carbs

43

what two energy systems run on carbs

ATP PC and Glycolysis

44

When should you consume carbs in reference to exercise

before, during if >1 hr, and after

45

Body cant properly burn fat without carbs

Fat burns in a carb flame

46

Why do you consume carbs after exercise. How much should you consume

to restore glycogen stores.
1.5g/kg within 30 minutes of exercise to maximize recovery

47

What % of daily intake should consist of carbs

45-65%

48

What macro provides energy for high intensity exercise

Carbs

49

Consuming too much sugar can lead to

Uncontrolled spikes in blood sugar, low energy, and increase appetite

50

Benefits of Fiber

Not source of energy but provides bulk in the diet and satiety
Good intestinal motility
lower risk of heart disease and cancer
Regulates blood glucose levels for up to 5 hrs

51

Recommended fiber for men and woman

38/25

52

Lipids consist of

Triglycerides, fats, oils, phospholipids, and sterols

53

Fat loss or overall health goals.. how much fat in diet

10-37%

54

three types of fatty acids

Saturated, Unsaturated and trans fatty

55

Saturated fats. explain, give ex

Saturated: no double bonds
Can raise LDL
Meat, poultry, dairy, coconut oil

56

Unsaturated fats: 2 types, Explain and give ex

Mono-one double bond
olive oil, canola oil, peanuts and avocado
Poly: many double bonds
vegetable oils, fish, nuts, and seeds

57

Poly unsaturated is thought to help reduce

heart disease, htn, arthritis, and cancer

58

What is fats role

Fuel for Low intensity activities
holding organs in place
Transportation of fat soluble vitamins (ADKE)
small amounts for weight loss
Structure and membrane function
cellular signals
precursor to hormones
regulation of uptake an excretion of nutrients in the cells
Insulating body
prolonging digestion process; creating satiety. Release of CCK

59

What % of human body is water

60

60

Water requirements for men and women

3.0L (13c) 2.2L (9c)

61

What % of loss of body weight will negatively impact circulatory functions and decrease performance

2%

62

Dehydration decreases

Blood volume
Performance
BP
Sweat rate
CO
blood flow to skin

63

Dehydration increases

core temp
water retention
HR
Sodium retention
perceived exertion
Use of muscle glycogen

64

How much water should you drink during exercise

6-12 oz every 15-20 min

65

How much after exercise

16-24

66

Three conditions present in metabolic syndrome

obesity, high fat diet, sedentary lifestyle

67

Name the 8 essential amino acids

isoleucine
leucine
lysine
meth
phen
threonine
tryphotan
valine

68

Alanine
Aspragine
Aspartic acid
Cysteine
Glutamic acid
Glutamine
Glycine
Proline
Serine
Tyrosine

Non essential amino acids

69

3 types of carbs

Monosaccharides, disaccarides, polysaccharides

70

Recommended carb intake for endurance athletes

High carb meal 2-4 hrs nefore exercising
30 -60 carbs every hour
1.5g.kg within 30 min after

71

Carb loading

4 days glycogen depletion
3 days rest and a high carb diet

72

Explain fatty acids effects on cholesterol

Saturated increases LDLs
Unsaturated (mono and poly) increased HDL
transfatty increases LDL

73

Function or importance of water in the body

improved endocrine gland function
alleviation of fluid retention
Liver fxn improves
Natural thirst returns
metabolic function improves
nutrients distibuted throughout the body
Body temp regulation improves
BV is maintaines

74

What are the water guidelines for atheletes

14-22 oz 2 hr before
6-12 oz 15-20 min during
>than 60 min sports drink
16-24 oz for every lb lost

75

Guidelines for fat loss

Decrease cals.

76

Guidelines for LBM

4-6 meals ; protein and carbs w/in 90 min after workour

77

Risks associated with low cal diets

Risk of malnutrion, poor energy, inability to complete fitness, pendulum swing, gallstones, fatigue, nausea, diarhhea