Chapter 19: Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19: Toxicology Deck (49):
1

What is the first question you should ask a person suspected of ingesting a poison such a lye?

what substances did you take

2

Opioids are medications with actions similar to:

morphine

3

Essentially, poisons get into the patient's body by inhalation, injection, ingestion, and:

absorption

4

oisons that come in contact with the surface of the body can affect the patient in many ways. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between contact absorption and:

contact burns

5

If local protocol allows you to administer activated charcoal, you should administer the premixed suspension in a

covered cup with a straw

6

Which of the four avenues of poisoning can be the most worrisome?

injection

7

Treatment of poison focuses on support. The EMT must assess and maintain the ABCs, being sure to monitor the patients

breathing

8

The "street" name for crack cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine is:

speed

9

________ is one of the most addicting substances known.

cocaine

10

Signs and symptoms of sympathomimetics include all of the following except:
-hypertension.
-tachycardia.
-pinpoint pupils.
-hyperthermia.

-pinpoint pupils.

11

Approximately what percentage of poisonings is by mouth?

80%

12

What is the most commonly abused drug in the United States?

alcohol

13

___ poisoning affects 5 million children and adults per year

acute

14

___ poisoning is much more common

chronic

15

rates of death caused by poisoning have ____ in children

DEC

16

rates of death caused by poisoning have ____ in adults

INC

17

____ is the study of toxic or poisonous substances

toxicology

18

a _____ is any substance whose chemical action can damage body structures or impair body function

poison

19

common complication of substance abuse is

overdose

20

overdose is when a patient

takes a toxic dose of a drug

21

your primary responsibility with a poisoned patient is to

recognize that poisoning has occurred

22

once you recognize that poisoning has occurred you should

notify medical control and begin emergency treatment

23

when trying to determine the nature of the poison look around the immediate area for

overturned bottles, needles, scattered pills, overturned plant

24

____ can provide critical info like:
name and concentration of drug
ingredients
number of pills in bottle originally

containers

25

if the patient vomits examine the contents for ____ and collect the vomitus in a plastic bag so it can be analyzed by the hospital

pill fragments

26

most important treatment for poisoning is ____ or _____ the poisonous agent

diluting or physically removing the poisonous agent

27

with inhalation poisoning move the patient into

fresh air

28

some patients may need _____ after removal from the toxic environment

decontamination

29

use a ______ to protect yourself

self contained breathing apparatus

30

in _____ poisons affect the patient by
skin damage
chemical burns
rashes/lesions
systemic effects

absorption

31

for chemical agents in eyes irrigate for ____ min for acids and ____ min for alkalis

5-10 min for acids
15-20 min for alkalis

32

irrigate the contact area with _____

water

33

only time you should not irrigate the contact area with water is id

they have been contaminated with a poison that reacts violently with water

34

ingested poisoning is often ____ in children and ____ in adults

accidental in children and deliberate in adults

35

goal with ingested poisons is to

rapidly remove as much poison as possible from the GI tract

36

two interventions for ingested poison (need med control approval)

syrup of ipecac and activated charcoal

37

contraindications for activated charcoal

acid/alkali/petroleum ingestion
dec LOC
inability to swallow

38

usual dose of activated charcoal is

1 g/kg body weight

39

____ are impossible to remove or dilute and are usually absorbed quickly into the body and cause intense local tissue destruction

injected poisons

40

consider _____ before transport

decontamination

41

in the secondary assessment focus on the

area of the body involved with the poisoning or route of exposure

42

dilute airborne exposures with

O2

43

remove contact exposures with

copious amounts of water

44

_____ is the need for the amount of a substance over time to reach the same desired effect

tolerance

45

effect of alcohol

depresses the CNS

46

worry about ______ in patients who took opioids

respiratory depression

47

MDMA, amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, PCP are all

sympathomimetics

48

DUMBELS

Defecation
Urination
Meiosis
Bronchorrhea
Emesis
Lacrimation
Salivation

49

acteaminophen overdose damages the

liver