Chapter 14: CV Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14: CV Emergencies Deck (70):
1

Which of the following ways to help reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths is false?
a. early access
b. increased number of laypeople trained in CPR
c. nitroglycerin available for laypeople and EMTs to give on arrival
d. public access defibrillation

c. nitroglycerin available for laypeople and EMTs to give on arrival

2

Chest pain or discomfort that is related to the heart usually stems from a condition called ischemia or:

insufficient oxygen

3

An acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a classic heart attack. Infarction is:

death of tissue

4

Generally speaking, most patients with chest pain should be transported:

immediately

5

If a pacemaker does not function properly, as when the battery wears out, the patient may experience syncope, presenting with a pulse less than:

60 BPM

6

When an error occurs while using an AED, it is usually the operator's fault. The most common error is:

not having charged the battery

7

If you are transporting a patient while performing CPR, before you can use an AED in the ambulance you must:

stop the vehicle

8

If you are en route with a conscious adult patient who is having chest pain and becomes unconscious, the first step is to:

check pulse

9

The disorder in which calcium and cholesterol build up and form a plaque inside the walls of blood vessels is called:

atherosclerosis

10

Before administering nitroglycerin, it is important to ensure that the patient's systolic blood pressure is greater than ________ mm Hg.

100

11

hearts job is to

pump blood to supply oxygen enriched RBC to tissues of the body

12

____ receive incoming blood

atrium

13

____ pump outgoing blood

ventricle

14

R side of heart pumps ___ blood to the ____

deoxy blood to lungs

15

L side of heart pumps ____ blood to the ____

oxy blood to the body

16

the ____ receives blood from the LV and delivers it to all other arteries

aorta

17

the pulmonary artery has ___ blood

deoxygenated

18

the pulmonary vein has ____ blood

oxygenated

19

____ is cardiac muscle

myocardium

20

_____ is spontaneous contraction of myocardium

automaticity

21

impulses come from the ___ node

sinoatrial (SA)

22

if the demand for oxygen of the heart INC the coronary arteries ____

dilate

23

____ controls involuntary activities of the body

ANS

24

ANS is broken into ____ and ____

SNS and parasympathetic NS

25

the SNS is ____/____

fight/flight

26

the SNS:
- ____ HR
- ____ breaths/min
- _____ BV in muscles
- _____ BV in digestive system

- INC HR
- INC breaths/min
- dilates BV in muscles
- constricts BV in digestive system

27

the parasympathetic NS:
- ____ HR
- ____ breaths/min
- _____ BV in muscles
- _____ BV in digestive system

- DEC HR
- DEC breaths/min
- constricts BV in muscles
- dilates BV in digestive system

28

___ describes the volume of blood ejected with each ventricular contraction

SV

29

INC SV = INC ____

CO

30

____ are the BV that supply blood to the heart muscle

coronary arteries

31

RCA supplies blood to the

RV

32

LCA feeds the

LV

33

superior vena cava caries deoxy blood from ____ to ___ back to the RA

head to arms

34

inferior vena cava carries deoxy blood from ____, ____, and ____ back to the RA

abdomen, kidneys, and legs

35

plasma is __% of blood

55

36

___ is the volume of blood that passes through the heart in 1 min

CO

37

____ is a blood clot that floats through the BV

thromboembolism

38

an AMI is a ____ caused by a clot in the coronary artery

heart attack

39

an AMI has chest pain that does not

change with breathing

40

_____ is a group of symptoms caused by myocardial ischemia that results in angina pectoris or AMI

acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

41

_____ occurs when the hearts need for oxygen exceeds the available supply, usually during physical or emotional stress

angina pectoris

42

angina pectoris is _____

predictable

43

____ angina responds to fewer stimuli than ordinarily required to produce angina

unstable

44

____ angina responds to rest or nitroglycerin

stable

45

3 serious consequences of AMI

1. sudden death
2. cardiogenic shock
3. CHF

46

pain of AMI signals the _____ of cells in the area of the heart where blood blow is obstructed

actual death

47

an AMI is

sudden

48

____ is abnormality of the heart rhythm

arrhythmia

49

premature ventricular contractions are ____ in a damaged ventricle

extra beats

50

ventricular tachycardia is ___ with ____ beats/min

rapid with 150-200 beats/min

51

ventricular fibrillation is the

disorganized, ineffective quivering of ventricles

52

____ is the absence of all heart electrical activity

asystole

53

_____ occurs when body tissues do not get enough oxygen, due to hearts inability to pump blood with enough force

cardiogenic shock

54

cardiogenic shock is often caused by

heart attack

55

CHF usually occurs within a few days of

heart attack

56

____ is INC HR, enlargement of LV that can no longer make up for DEC heart function

CHF

57

with CHF ____ often occurs once heart fails to pump effectively

pulmonary edema

58

______ occur when the systolic BP is higher than 160 or there is a rapid INC in systolic BP

hypertensive emergenices

59

sign of hypertensive emergency

sudden severe headache

60

_____ is a weakness in the wall of the aorta that is susceptible to rupture

aortic aneurysm

61

aortic aneurysm causes

sudden chest pain

62

with a _____ the inner layers of the aorta become separated

dissecting anuerysm

63

uncontrolled _____ is a primary cause of aortic aneurysm

hypertension

64

nitroglycerin is a
- ______
- _____ blood flow and oxygen to heart
- _____ work load of heart

nitroglycerin is a
- vasodilator
- INC blood flow and oxygen to heart
- DEC work load of heart

65

cardiac arrest is indicated by lack of

carotid pulse

66

L side of heart receives oxygenated blood from

lungs

67

chest pain is a result of ____ blood flow through the coronary artery

insufficient blood flow

68

pain from angina lasts ___ min

3-8

69

AMI is more prone to occur in the ___ ventricle

L

70

____ of AMI patients do not reach the hospital due to sudden death

40%