Chapter 30: Environmental Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 30: Environmental Emergencies Deck (48):
1

The rate and amount of heat loss or gain by the body can be modified in three ways. Which of the following is not one of those three ways?
- Increase or decrease heat production.
- Move to an area where heat loss is decreased or increased.
- Drink lots of hot drinks.
- Wear insulated clothing.

- Drink lots of hot drinks.

2

A number of factors will affect how a person deals with a cold or hot environment. Which one of the following is NOT true?
- Small infants have poor thermoregulation at birth and do not have the ability to shiver and generate heat.
- Young children dehydrate quicker and need stimulants to counteract their dehydration.
- Poor circulation contributes to increased heat loss and gain in either environment.
- Medications taken by older persons can also affect their bodies' thermostats, putting them at higher risk for hot or cold problems.

- Young children dehydrate quicker and need stimulants to counteract their dehydration.

3

At what age do young children have the ability to shiver and generate heat?

ages 12 months to 18 months

4

Recording specific results of your early assessment is particularly valuable in which condition?

hypothermic

5

Signs and symptoms of hypothermia generally become progressively more severe as:

the body core temperature falls

6

mild hypothermia will occur at which temperature?

90-95 degrees

7

All patients who are severely injured are at risk for hypothermia. The first step of five steps listed to prevent further cold injury is:

remove the patient from the cold environment as promptly as possible

8

After prolonged exposure to the cold, the skin may be freezing while the deeper tissues are unaffected. This condition is called:

frostnip

9

Which of the following is the most common serious illness caused by heat?
- heat cramps
- heatstroke
- heat exhaustion or heat prostration
- heat hypoevaporation

heat exhaustion or heat prostration

10

Why is it important to continue resuscitation efforts on a victim of a cold water drowning until the patient is pronounced dead by a physician?

Cold water drowning victims can sometimes be successfully resuscitated after a prolonged period.

11

Why is it important that the victim of a snake bite remain calm?

remaining calm slows the spread of venom through the body

12

What is the transfer of body heat to a colder object by direct contact called?

conduction

13

Hot, dry, flushed skin is a sign of:

heatstroke

14

Cold illness can be either a ___ or a ____ problem.

Cold illness can be either a local or a systemic problem.

15

Local cold injuries include ____ , ____, and _____

Local cold injuries include frostbite, frostnip, and immersion foot.

16

_____ is the most serious local cold injury because tissues actually freeze.

Frostbite

17

All patients with a local cold injury should be _____ and _____

removed from the cold and protected from further exposure.

18

If instructed to do so by medical control, rewarm frostbitten parts by immersing them in water at a temperature between ______.

100°F and 112°F (38°C and 44.5°C)

19

D. The key to treating hypothermic patients is to ____ and _____. Do not attempt to rewarm patients who have moderate to severe hypothermia because they are prone to developing arrhythmias.

stabilize vital functions and prevent further heat loss

20

Do not consider a patient dead until he or she is ____ and dead

warm

21

The body’s regulatory mechanisms normally maintain body temperature within a ____ range around 98.6°F (37°C).

very narrow

22

Body temperature is regulated by _______ via conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation, and respiration.

heat loss to the atmosphere

23

Heat illness can take three forms: _____, _____, and _____

heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heatstroke.

24

_____ are painful muscle spasms that occur with vigorous exercise.

heat cramps

25

Treatment for heat cramps includes removing the patient from the heat, resting the affected muscles, and _____

replacing lost fluids.

26

______ is essentially a form of hypovolemic shock caused by dehydration.

Heat exhaustion

27

Symptoms of heat exhaustion include cold and clammy skin, weakness, confusion, headache, and rapid pulse. Body temperature can be high, and the patient may or may not still be sweating. Treatment includes _______
and treating for mild hypovolemic shock.

removing the patient from the heat

28

_____ is a life-threatening emergency, usually fatal if untreated.

Heatstroke

29

Patients with heatstroke are usually ____ and will have high body temperatures. Changes in mental status can include ___. Rapid_________ in the field is critical.

Patients with heatstroke are usually dry and will have high body temperatures. Changes in mental status can include coma. Rapid lowering of the body temperature in the field is critical.

30

H. The first rule in caring for drowning victims is to be sure not to become a victim yourself. ____ when removing patients from the water because spinal cord injuries often occur in drownings. Be aware of the possibility of hypothermia.

protect the spine

31

Be aware of the possibility of _____ with drowning victims

hypothermia

32

Injuries associated with scuba diving may be immediately apparent or may show up ____.

hours later

33

Patients with air embolism or decompression sickness may have pain, paralysis, or _____. Be prepared to transport such patients to a recompression facility with a ____

altered mental status, hyperbaric chamber.

34

A person who has been bitten by a pit viper needs prompt transport; ______ and _____ to slow the spread of venom.

clean the bite area and keep the patient quiet

35

Notify the hospital as soon as possible if a patient has been bitten by a coral snake; its venom can cause paralysis of the _____, and most hospitals do not have appropriate ____ on hand.

nervous system, antivenom

36

Patients who have been bitten by ticks may be infected with _____ or ____ and should see a doctor within a day or two. Remove the tick using tweezers, and save it for identification.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever or Lyme disease

37

Always provide _______ for any patient who has been bitten by a poisonous insect or animal. Remember that vital signs can deteriorate rapidly. Carefully monitor the patient’s vital signs en route, especially for _____

prompt transport to the hospital, airway compromise.

38

Always provide _______ for any patient who has been bitten by a poisonous insect or animal. Remember that vital signs can deteriorate rapidly. Carefully monitor the patient’s vital signs en route, especially for _____

prompt transport to the hospital, airway compromise.

39

The loss of body heat due to circulating air is an example of ____________.

convection

40

What mechanism is used to generate body heat during hypothermia?

Shivering

41

At what core body temperature does shivering cease?

90°F (32°C)

42

How does frostbite differ from frostnip?

Tissues are frozen in frostbite.

43

What are the two most efficient ways the body can cool itself?

Sweating and the dilation of blood vessels

44

What condition results from the body’s normal cooling mechanisms becoming overwhelmed?

heatstroke

45

What is the first step in treating the patient with heatstroke?

Move the patient out of the hot environment.

46

How does near drowning differ from drowning?

Near drowning is at least temporary survival after suffocation in water.

47

What is the most common and dangerous scuba diving emergency?

Air embolism

48

What type of spider has venom that is neurotoxic?

Black widow