Chapter 9: Airway Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Airway Management Deck (102):
1

brain tissue will begin to die within ____ minutes when deprived of oxygen

4-6 minutes

2

____ of the brain is lost every minute without oxygen

10%

3

oxygen reaches the bodies tissues through what two processes

circulation and breathing

4

the airway is divided into upper and lower portions by the

larynx

5

_____ is the exchange of air between lungs and the environment

ventilation

6

ventilation is necessary for _____ and ____ to occur

oxygenation and respiration

7

the upper airway consists of these 6 anatomical structures

1. nose
2. mouth
3. jaw
4. oral cavity
5. pharynx
6. larynx

8

the function of the upper airway is to

warm, filter, and humidify air entering the mouth and nose

9

the ____ is a muscular tube that starts at the nose and ends at the trachea level

pharynx

10

the pharynx consists of these three structures

1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx

11

the ____ is the entrance to the respiratory and digestive systems

oropharynx

12

the ____ prevents food and liquid from entering the larynx during swallowing

epiglottis

13

the larynx consists of these two structures

adam's apple and vocal cords

14

function of the lower airway

gas exchange

15

lower airway consists of these three structures

1. trachea
2. thoracic cavity
3. lungs

16

the ____ is where air enters into the lungs

trachea

17

the trachea divides at the ____ into the ______

carina, into the two main stem bronchi (right and left)

18

function of the bronchi is to

distribute O2 into the lungs

19

bronchi --> _____ --> ______

bronchi --> bronchioles --> alveoli

20

the bronchioles are ______ that _____ and ____ as O2 passes through

the bronchioles are smooth muscle that dilate and constrict as O2 passes through

21

____ are where O2 and CO2 exchange

alveoli

22

alveoli are surrounded by ______ where oxygen is diffused from the alveoli and transported to the heart for distribution through the body

pulmonary capillaries

23

also in the thoracic cavity is the ____

mediastinum

24

the mediastinum is the area between the

lungs

25

the mediastinum consists of these 6 things

1. heart
2. great vessels (vena cava and aorta)
3. esophagus (not part of resp. system)
4. trachea
5. major bronchi
6. nerves

26

the ____ and ____ systems work together to supply cells with O2 and nutrients and to remove waste

respiratory and cardiovascular systems

27

_____ is the amount of air (in ml) that move into the lung s in one breath

tidal volume (TV)

28

ventilation consists of ____ and _____

inhalation and exhalation

29

inhalation is an ____ process

active

30

during inhalation the diaphragm ______

contracts

31

____ is tidal volume that does not reach the alveoli

dead space

32

____ is the amount of air that can be forcibly expelled from the lungs after breathing deeply

vital capacity

33

____ is the air that remains after maximal expiration

residual volume

34

exhalation is a _____ process

passive

35

during exhalation the diaphragm _____

relaxes

36

during exhalation air pressure in the ______ is higher than the outside so air is _____ through the trachea

during exhalation air pressure in the THORAX is higher than the outside so air is PUSHED OUT through the trachea

37

regulation of ventilation is accomplished by ___ of ____

pH of CSF

38

regulation of ventilation is directly related to the amount of ___ in the blood

CO2

39

____ involves difficulty in eliminating CO2 through exhalation

COPD

40

patients with COPD have a back up system known as _____ to control breathing

hypoxic drive

41

_____ is the process of loading oxygen molecules into hemoglobin in the bloodstream

oxygenation

42

oxygenation does not guarantee ____

internal respiration

43

____ is the exchange of gases in alveoli and body tissues

respiration

44

_______ is the exchange of gases between alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries

external/pulmonary respiration

45

_____ is the exchange of gases between systemic circulatory system and the cells of the body (oxygen from blood to tissue)

internal respiration

46

without oxygen in:
0-1 minute ____
0-4 minutes _____
4-6 minutes ____
6-10 minutes ____
over 10 minutes ____

0-1 minute: cardiac irritability
0-4 minutes: brain damage not likely
4-6 minutes: brain damage possible
6-10 minutes: brain damage very likely
over 10 minutes: irreversible brain damage

47

____ monitor O2, CO2, hydrogen ions, and pH of CSP to control respiration

chemoreceptors

48

circulatory compromise can result from
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1. pulmonary embolism
2. tension pneumothorax
3. open pneumothorax
4. hemothorax
5. hemopneumothorax

49

_____ causes poor TV

tension pneumothorax

50

_____ is a hole through the lung and chest wall

open pneumothorax

51

____ is blood in a lung

hemothorax

52

_____ is a collapsed lung with blood

hemopneumothorax

53

adequate breathing is
- ____ breaths per minute
- ___ pattern
- ______ lung sounds
- ______ chest rise and fall
- ____ depth

- 12-20 breaths per minute
- regular pattern of inspiration and expiration
- clear bilateral lung sounds
- regular and equal chest rise and fall
- adequate depth

54

_____ is when the patient's heart has stopped and they have ocassional gasping breaths

agonal respirations

55

_____ happen often with stroke and head injury, are INC rate and depth followed by apnea

cheyne-stokes respirations

56

_____ have an irregular or unidentifiable pattern

ataxic respirations

57

_____ are deep gasping respirations (associated with metabolic or toxic disorders)

kussmaul respirations

58

to open the airway the patient should be in the ____ position

supine

59

in an unconscious patient the ____ is the most common obstruction

tongue

60

the _____ is the most often used method to open the airway

head-tilt chin lift

61

_____ is used to open the airway if cervical trauma is suspected

jaw thrust

62

OPA keeps ____ off of the airway and should be used only for an ____ patient with no ____

OPA keeps tongue off of the airway and should be used only for an unconscious patient with no gag reflex

63

NPA's are for a patient with

gag reflex

64

____ tips are used on a suctioning device for the pharynx

yankauer tips (rigid pharyngeal suction tips)

65

_____ tips are used to suction the nose or back of mouth

whistle-tip (nonrigid plastic)

66

suction no more than
___ s for adult
___ s for child
___ s for infant

15 s/ adult
10 s/child
5 s/ infant
(or as long as necessary)

67

______ is used to maintain a clear airway in an unconscious patient who is not injured and is breathing on his or her own with a normal respiratory rate and adequate TV

recover position

68

always give supplemental oxygen to patients who are

hypoxic

69

never withold oxygen especially if you are giving

ventilations

70

____ are the preferred way to give oxygen to patients who are breathing adequately but are suspected of having hypoxia

nonrebreathing masks

71

NRB masks should be set to a rate of ____L/min and provide up to ___% inspired O2

12-15 L/min
90% inspired O2

72

_____ give 24-44% inspired O2

nasal cannula

73

nasal cannula should be set at a rate of ____L/min

4-6 L/min

74

with a ____ mask the patient rebreathes a small amount of their exhaled air

partial rebreathing mask

75

the partial rebreathing mask is advantageous for a patient who is

hyperventilating

76

venturi mask can vary the _____ and is for long term management

% of oxygen

77

3 signs and symptoms of inadequate venilation

altered mental status
inadequate minute volume
excessive accessory muscle use and fatigue

78

with normal breathing the diaphragm _____ and the ____ pressure generated in the chest cavity brings air into the lungs

contracts, negative pressure

79

with positive pressure ventilation, the positive pressure generated by the device forces air into the chest cavity and the _____ intra thoracic pressure ____ the amount of blood pumped by the heart

with positive pressure ventilation, the positive pressure generated by the device forces air into the chest cavity and the INC intra thoracic pressure DEC the amount of blood pumped by the heart

80

ventilation rates for patients with a pulse
adult
child
infant

adult: 1 breath every 5-6 sec
child: 1 breath every 3-5 sec
infant: 1 breath every 3-5 sec

81

______ ventilation is preferred over BVM for apnic person

mouth to mask ventilation

82

4 signs you are performing adequate ventilations

1. improved color
2. chest rise
3. no resistance
4. you can hear and feel air escape at patient exhales

83

_____ occurs with artificial ventilations (stomach fills with air)

gastric distension

84

gastric distension occurs most commonly amongst

children

85

gastric distension occurs when you ventilate too ____ or _____ with a ______ or ______

forcefully or rapidly with a mag mask or pocket mask

86

gastric distension can also occur when there is _____ or when you use improper ____

FBAO or when you use improper head position

87

gastric distension can cause ____ and INC risk of _____

can cause vomiting and INC risk of aspiration

88

gastric distension can also DEC _____ by elevating _____

DEC lung volume by elevating the diaphragm

89

if dentures are _____ you should leave them in place when performing ventilations but if they are _____ they should be removed

if dentures are well-fitting you should leave them in place when performing ventilations but if they are loose they should be removed

90

when fresh air is inspired into the lungs it is ___% O2, but when it is exhaled it is ____%

21% on inhalation, 16% on exhalation

91

common causes of inaccurate ______ readings include:
hypovolemia
anemia
dirty fingers
nail polish
CO poisoning
peripheral vasoconstriction

pulse oximetry

92

the aspect of natural ventilation that involves the diaphragm contracting and the chest wall expanding is

inhalation

93

which of the following structures is not part of the upper airway
- nasopharynx
- epiglottis
- trachea
- larynx

trachea

94

the process by which CP2 moves from a high conc in the capillaries to a lower conc in the alveoli

diffusion

95

a patient who is developing early stages of hypoxia may exhibit

restlessness

96

NPA's _____ get inserted with a rotating motion

DO NOT

97

if a d-sized oxygen cylinder contains 300L of oxygen and is at 2,000 PSI at the start of a call, the best estimate for the amount of time a patient can receive 15 L/min with a NRB mask is

20 min

98

properly performed suctioning of a patient may still cause

vomiting

99

the most common complication of the flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device is

gastric distension

100

the structure also known as the wind-pipe is

the trachea

101

some cells may become severely or permanently damaged after what period of time without oxygen

4-6 minutes

102

with an oxygen rate of 15 L/min and an adequate mask to mouth seal a bag mask device with an O2 reservoir can deliver nearly what % of O2

100%