Chapter 26: Head and Spinal Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26: Head and Spinal Trauma Deck (30):
1

The central nervous system is divided into three areas. What are the three areas

cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem

2

What controls the body's vital organs?

ANS

3

How many vertebrae are in the thoracic region of the spinal cord?

12

4

Bruising behind the ear is known as ________, and it is considered a later sign of a head injury.

battles sign

5

What is the most common complication of a head injury?

cerebral edema

6

Using the Glasgow Coma Scale, what total score would you give a patient who opens his eyes to your voice, answers all questions correctly, and is able to obey your motor commands?

14

7

When you suspect a head or spinal injury, how would you open the airway?

jaw thrust

8

When treating a patient with a helmet on, you should remove the helmet only when:

you are otherwise unable to maintain an airway

9

If you do not have a pediatric backboard, how should you stabilize a child on a regular backboard?

pad the shoulders

10

A(n) _________ bleed is bleeding that occurs outside the dura mater in the skull.

epidural

11

When immobilizing a patient to a long backboard, which part of the body should be secured last?

head

12

Which of the following statements about transferring a patient sitting in an automobile to a long backboard is true?
-The patient should always be removed from the vehicle feet first.
-The patient should be secured to a short board first and then moved to the long board.
-If the patient is conscious and alert, ask him or her to slide onto the long backboard while you maintain manual in-line stabilization of the spine.

-The patient should be secured to a short board first and then moved to the long board.

13

How many EMTs does it take to properly immobilize a standing patient to a long backboard?

3

14

The human nervous system can be divided into two parts: the ____ and ___

CNS and PNS

15

The CNS consists of the ______

brain and the spinal cord

16

the peripheral nervous system consists of a ______, like cables, that transmit information to and from the body’s organs to and from the brain.

network of nerve fibers

17

The CNS is also covered and protected by three layers of tissue called the meninges. The layers are called the ___, ____, and the ___

dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.

18

A ____ is a traumatic injury to the head that may result in injury to soft tissue, bony structures, or the brain.

head injury

19

A _____ is a severe head injury that can be a life threat or leave the patient with life-altering injuries.

traumatic brain injury

20

Motor vehicle crashes, direct blows, falls from heights, assault, and sports injuries are common causes of _____. A patient who has experienced any of these events may have also sustained a ____.

spinal injury, head injury

21

Treat the patient with a head injury according to three general principles that are designed to protect and maintain the critical functions of the CNS: ____, ____, and ___

establish an adequate airway, control bleeding, and reassess the patient’s baseline level of consciousness.

22

Treat the patient with a spinal injury by _____, _____, and _____

maintaining the airway while keeping the spine in proper alignment, assess respirations, and give supplemental oxygen.

23

What type of peripheral nerves carry information from the brain to the body via the spinal cord?

Sensory nerves

24

What type of intracranial bleeding occurs beneath the dura mater but outside of the brain?

subdural hematoma

25

What type of injury is caused by a bruise to the brain?

contusion

26

What five questions should you ask a patient with possible spinal injuries?

1. What happened?
2. Where does it hurt?
3. Does your neck or back hurt?
4. Can you move your hands and feet?
5. Did you hit your head?

27

A patient who opens his eyes when you say his name, is confused when he speaks, and localizes pain would receive what score on the Glasgow Coma Scale?

12

28

What procedure can be used to control most bleeding from scalp lacerations?

Direct pressure

29

What is Cushing’s triad?

hypertension, bradycardia, irregular respirations (cheyne-stokes, hyperventilation, biot respirations)

30

_____ (irregular rate, pattern, and depth of breathing)

biot respirations