CHAPTER 1b Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPTER 1b Vocab Deck (47):
1

The need to associate with others and maintain social bonds

Affiliation motive

2

Personal stories about specific incidents and experiences

Anecdotal evidence

3

An in-depth investigation of an individual subject

Case study

4

The percentage of variation in one variable that can be predicted based on the other variable

Coefficient of determination

5

A condition that exists whenever two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their independent effects

Confounding of variables

6

Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearances

Conservation

7

Subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group

Control group

8

The extent to which two variables are related to each other

Correlation

9

A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables

Correlation coefficient

10

Procedures for making empirical observations and measurements

Data collection techniques

11

In an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable

Dependent variable

12

Statistics that are used to organize and summarize data

Descriptive statistics

13

A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups

Double blind procedures

14

The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation

Empiricism

15

A research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result

Experiment

16

The subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable

Experimental group

17

A phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained

Experimenter bias

18

Any variable other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study

Extraneous variables

19

A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables

Hypothesis

20

In an experiment, a condition or event that that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable

Independent Variable

21

Statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions

Inferential statistics

22

A periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry

Journal

23

The arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution

Mean

24

The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores

Median

25

A family of mental exercises in which a conscious attempt is made to focus attention in a nonanalytical way

Meditation

26

The score that occurs most frequently in a distribution

Mode

27

A descriptive research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects

Naturalistic observation

28

A definition that describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control variable

Operational definition

29

The persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study

Participants

30

The fact that subjects' expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment

Placebo effects

31

The larger collection of animals or people from which a sample is drawn and that researchers want to generalize about

Population

32

The science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems

Psychology

33

The constitution of groups in a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition

Random assignment

34

The repetition of a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition

Replication

35

Differing approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies

Research methods

36

A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions

Response set

37

The collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study

Sample

38

A problem that occurs that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn

Sampling bias

39

A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself

Social desirability bias

40

An index of the amount of variability in a set of data

Standard deviation

41

The condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low

Statistical significance

42

The use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data

Statistics

43

The persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study

Subjects

44

A descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of subjects' behavior

Survey

45

A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations

Theory

46

The extent to which the scores in a data set tend to very from each other ad from the mean

Variability

47

Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study

Variables