Unit 1 Guided Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 Guided Notes Deck (67):
1

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes and the factors that influence them

Psychology

2

Any observable response or activity by an organism

Behavior

3

Physiology ad Philosophy

Influencing factors

4

Relying on observable data

Empiricism

5

Relying on the simplest explanation possible (ex. of Empiricism)

Parsimony

6

Human behavior is ultimately predictable (ex. of Empiricism)

Determinism

7

As a science, psychologists deal with data that can be answered (ex. of Empiricism)

Testability

8

Wilhelm Wundt

Structuralism

9

I think...

Therefor, I am.

10

Wilhelm Wundt emphasized introspective analysis of _____ and _____

Sensation and Perception

11

William James

Functionalism

12

Does Functionalism or Structuralism have a more lasting impact?

Functionalism - it lea to behaviorism

13

Looking within in an attempt to describe one's own memories, perceptions, and cognitive processes or motivation

Introspection

14

The branch of psychology that studies the physiological/biological basis of behavior (Emphasis on heredity and biological processes, such as brain chemistry)

Physiological

15

Function of abnormally low levels of saratonin in the brain

Depression

16

Psychology should study only observable behavior - actions have consequences

John Watson

17

The branch of psychology that studies complex behavior and mental processes

Cognitive (Jean Piaget)

18

Cognitive Psychology Branches

Learning
Attention
Learning and Memory
Verbal Behavior (language)
Concept Formation
Problem Solving

19

Psychology emphasizing perception and thought processes - depressed people perceive events in a negative ways and think depressing thoughts

Cognitive Psychology

20

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

Humanistic

21

An approach to the study of human behavior that emphasizes human experience, choice of creativity, self-realization, and positive growth

Humanism

22

Emphasis on resolved conflicts from childhood, unconscious motives, and importance of sexuality

Psychoanalysis - Sigmund Freud

23

Emphasis on observable behavior and the consequences of behavior

Behaviorism

24

Emphasis on free will and personal growth

Humanism

25

Study of biological bases of psychological processes and behavior

Biopsychology

26

Thinking, conscious experience, observable mental processes

Cognitive Psychology

27

Study chances that occur with age

Developmental Psychology

28

Investigation and treatment of abnormal behavior and mental disorders

Clinical Psychology

29

Interaction between lifestyle and physical health

Health Psychology

30

Work to improve curriculum designs, achievement testing, and teacher training

Educational Psychology

31

Testing and counseling of children having difficulties in school; aid parents and teachers

School Psychology

32

Run Human Resources departments; improve productivity and attitudes, increase job satisfaction and moral

Industrial Psychology

33

A psychologist who helps organizations that manufacture products or that buy products/services

Consumer Psychology

34

Investigate relationships between people and physical environment; work with architects and geographers

Environmental Psychology

35

Studies the effects of culture on behavior

Cultural Psychology

36

Analyzes criminals - find out what makes them tick

Forensic Psychology

37

MD - diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

Psychiatrist

38

PhD or Ed D or PhD - interviews, testing, group/individual psychotherapy

Clinical psychologist

39

A set of rules that govern the collection and analysis of data gained through observations, studies, and experiments

The Scientific Method

40

Steps of scientific method

Identify problem
Form hypothesis
Carry out research

41

Goals of scientific method

Measurement/Description
Understanding/Prediction
Application/Control

42

Steps in scientific investigation

Formulate a testable hypothesis
Select the method and design the study
Collect the data
Analyze the data and draw conclusions
Report the findings

43

Define the actions and operations used to measure or control a variable

Operationalization

44

Condition or event directly manipulated by the experimenter

Independent Variable

45

The aspect or behavior thought to be affected by the IV; outcome or result

Dependent Variable

46

Outside variables that might affect DV

Extraneous Variables

47

Gets no special treatment

Control Group

48

Gets special treatment

Experimental/treatment group

49

Involved in the experiment with the experimenters

Confederates

50

Use old, previously recorded data

Archival research

51

No intervention with subjects

Naturalistic Observation

52

Questionnaires and interviews used to gather information about specific aspects of behavior

Survey Research

53

Follows one participant

Case study

54

Informed consent

Ethics

55

Experimenter has an idea of how they would want their experiment to turn out

Experimenter Bias

56

May not experiment seriously; they may try to guess what is happening

Subject Bias

57

Change in behavior due to no actual treatment

Placebo Effect

58

Much larger collection of animals/people

Population

59

Collection of subjects selected for observation

Sample

60

Used to determine if a relationship between two factors exists, and what type of relationship

Correlational Research

61

Both variables change in the same direction

Positive Correlations

62

Variables change in opposite direction

Negative Correlations

63

Numerical index of degree of relationship between 2 variables

Correlation Coefficient

64

Make predictions about population based on samples

Inferential Statistics

65

Make calculations to determine whether research results are statistically significant

Hypothesis testing

66

Probability that observed findings are due to chance is low

Statistical significance

67

Repeat to verify results are valid

Replication