CHAPTER 2 Vocab (A-E) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPTER 2 Vocab (A-E) Deck (27):
1

A brief change in a neuron electrical charge

Action Potential

2

An inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged

Adaptation

3

Research studies that assess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents

Adoption studies

4

Axons that carry information inwards to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body

Afferent nerve fibers

5

A chemical that mimics the actions of a neurotransmitter

Agonist

6

A chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter

Antagonist

7

The system of nerves that connects to the heart blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

8

A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands

Axon

9

Any overt (observable) behavior response or activity by an organism

Behavior

10

An interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits

Behavioral genetics

11

The brain and the spinal cord

Central nervous system (CNS)

12

The convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum

Cerebral cortex

13

The right and left halves of the cerebrum

Cerebral hemispheres

14

A solution that fills the hollow cavities (ventricles) of the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord

Cerebrospinal fluid

15

Threadlike strands of DNA and molecules that carry genetic information

Chromosomes

16

The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres

Corpus callosum

17

A limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences

Critical period

18

Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information

Dendrites

19

A gene that is expressed when paired genes are heterozygous

Dominant gene

20

Axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body

Efferent nerve fibers

21

Sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate it

Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)

22

A device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp

Electroencephalograph

23

A group of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning

Endocrine system

24

The entire family of internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects

Endorphins

25

Theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations

Evolutionary psychology

26

An electric potential that increases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials

Excitatory PSP

27

People who tend to be interested in the external world of people and things

Extroverts