Flashcards in Chapter 20-The Victorian Era: England's Age of Progress+Chapter 21-Unbelief & Revolution in 19th-Century Europe Deck (167)
Who was a great leader at the beginning of the 19th century, was Britain's esteemed hero of the Napoleonic Wars, and following these wars, became commander in chief of the military, and later served as prime minister?
Duke of Wellington
Who was was the important leader of the beginning of the 19th century, who served positions in Parliament, the cabinet, and two terms as prime minister, and also founded the London Metropolitan Police force?
Sir Robert Peel
Who were the three great English statesmen of the beginning of the 19th century?
William Pitt the Younger,
Duke of Wellington,
Sir Robert Peel,
Who was the longest-ruling monarch in English history, ruled for 64 years, began ruling at the age of 18, and was a good queen?
Under the leadership of Queen Victoria, the British Empire covered a quarter of the globe, and included about a quarter of the world's people, so that it could be said:
"The sun never sets on the British Empire"
In 1851, Britain's great scientific, industrial, and cultural achievements were brilliantly displayed at the ________________, the first world's fair.
In 1840, Queen Victoria married _________________ of Germany, who was also called prince consort, having nine children, their model marriage was an inspiration to the English people.
After several attempts were made to reform the political system, ______________ (the right to vote) was eventually granted to middle-class males by the Reform Bill of 1832.
After several attempts we're made to reform the political system, suffrage (the right to vote) was eventually granted to middle-class males by the:
Reform Bills of 1832
What two parties was the Parliament divided into?
What was the division of the Parliament that represented the middle class of the Industrial Age?
What was the division of the Parliament that represented the nobility and other wealthy people?
Who was the man who was a Conservative before joining the ranks of the liberal party and fervently espousing the rights of the common man, has been called "The Grand Old Man" and was known as a deeply religious man and a great orator?
Who was the man of Jewish descent who swung from liberalism to become the renowned leader of the Conservative party, and was especially regarded by Queen Victoria?
Who was the most outstanding British leader at the beginning of the 19th century, a member of Parliament, served as prime minister during the French Revolution and much the Napoleonic Wars?
William Pitt the Younger
Who was the greatest preacher of the Victorian Era, was the pastor of London's largest church, and was acclaimed as the "Prince of Preachers"?
Charles Haddon Spurgeon
Who was a preacher of the Victorian Age who wrote several devotional studies of Bible characters that revealed keen insight into practical Christian living?
Who was the great American evangelist who had a successful ministry in America, traveled to Britain in 1873, 1881, and 1891 to preach, and joined by songleader Ira Sankey, he spoke to huge crowds of people throughout England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland?
Dwight L. Moody
Who was the songleader who worked with Dwight L. Moody throughout England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland?
Moody influenced several Englishmen to serve on foreign mission fields, including ______________, a famous cricket player who spent his life as a missionary to China, India, and Africa.
C. T. Studd
Moody influenced several Englishmen to serve on foreign mission fields, including _______________ who worked with the people of Labrador and Newfoundland.
Who were the two early Presbyterian pioneers in China, the first of them translated the Bible into Chinese?
Robert Morrison (translated),
Who was the Methodist physician-preacher, was the greatest of all British missionaries in China, and the founder of the China Inland Mission, and is remembered for his determination to depend upon God alone?
J. Hudson Taylor
J. Hudson Taylor was the founder of the:
China Inland Mission
What was the rebellion aided by Chinese government authorities, destroyed property belonging to Westerners and killed over 200 people, many of whom were American and European missionaries?
After much negotiation, a U.S. naval officer __________________ convinced Japan to sign the treaty for trade and diplomatic relations with the United States.
Commodore Matthew Perry
Japan was finally opened to Christian missions through the efforts of _______________, the first diplomatic representative that America sent to Japan.
In what year did Townsend Harris persuade the Japanese to sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce?
In 1858, Townsend Harris persuaded the Japanese to sign the _____________________, which permitted missionaries to enter Japan.
Treaty of Amity and Commerce
Who was the first Baptist missionary to Japan who invented the rickshaw?
When a serious illness left Globe's wife unable to walk, he invented the world's first ____________ to help her get out.
Who was the most famous of all Japanese Christians, who became one of the first people to take the gospel message to the interior of Japan, and died at only age 47?
Who was one of England's most famous humanitarians, was a German missionary, a man of great prayer and faith, founded orphanages for the children of Bristol, England, and trusted God for everything?
Who was a Christian who showed compassion to the needy, was a Methodist evangelist, and in 1865, began a mission in the darkest slums of London, and his ministry became known as the Salvation Army?
In 1878, William Booth's ministry became known as the:
What was an organization formed in the 19th century to do benevolent work was the _________________, that the needs of young men staying out of temptation in the city, moving from the country.
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA)
Conditions for children, laborers, and the mentally handicapped were improved through the efforts of ____________, the earl of Shaftesbury. Promoted several laws that eased the difficult conditions in factories and lowered the number of working hours per day, and prohibited women and children from working in such dangerous occupations.
Until the 20th century, most British schools were run by:
Who was the daughter of a wealthy Christian family in England, who chose to become a nurse, and after receiving training in Germany, returned to Britain, where she single-handedly created the modern nursing profession.
What was the age between 1880 and 1900 alone, where nearly a million square miles of territory were added to the British Empire?
great age of the British Empire
Someone has said that Britain expanded her empire throughout the world for three reasons _______________. The economic factors were important from the very beginning.
"gold, God, and glory"
Much of the British Empire was acquired through _______________, strategic negotiation between nations.
In what war did Britain join France and Sardinia to stop Russia's attempt to assert its dominance over Turkey and seize portions of Turkish territory, a move which also endangered British interests in the Middle East?
Queen Victoria sent ____________ to investigate conditions in Canada, and he made the three suggestions for settling the problem of: 1. Reuniting the two sections into one. 2. Give the Canadians a representative government. 3. Follow a plan for settlement of unoccupied territories.
Durham's plan was gradually enacted, and in 1867, the _________________ made Canada a self-governing commonwealth (federation of states).
British North America Act
In what year did the British North America Act make Canada a self-governing commonwealth?
The tool of British settlement was the _______________, a powerful trade company which was not officially connected with the government.
East India Company
In what year did Robert Clive win the Battle of Plassey against Indian forces?
After 1757, when Robert Clive won the _______________ against Indian forces, the East India Company controlled nearly all of India.
Battle of Plassey
The British government did not take complete control of India until a serious uprising called the _______________, which began in 1857 among native soldiers in the British army and involved the age-old religious traditions of India.
In 1858, Parliament passed the ______________, which wrested away the last vestiges of political authority from the East India Company and gave full political control of India to the British government.
The first and foremost benefit under British rule was the work of Protestant missionaries, such as ________________, who was responsible for the translation of the Bible into over 40 Indian languages and dialects, and helped the Indians improve their agricultural methods, and did much to discourage the Hindu practices of sacrificing babies to idols and suttee.
What is the Hindu practice of forcing widows to hurl themselves upon their husband's funeral fires?
Who was the woman from Ireland who worked for years to rescue Indian girls from a life of prostitution in the pagan temples and to bring them to Christ?
Africa was dangerous because of the intense hostility and hatred fostered by the ________________, where Africans would buy and sell each other, raid other tribes and abduct men, women, and children to sell to Arab and Portuguese slave traders.
Who were the four earliest Presbyterian Scotland explorers of the "Dark Continent" of Africa?
James Bruce (Blue Nile),
Mungo Park (traced the Niger River),
Hugh Claperton (first European to cross Sahara Desert),
Alexander Laing (first European to reach the trading post of Timbuktu)
Who was one of the first Presbyterian Scotland explorers who explored the source of the Blue Nile?
Who was one of the first Presbyterian Scotland explorers who traced most of the Niger River, Africa's third longest river?
Who was one of the first Presbyterian Scotland explorers who became the first European to cross the Sahara Desert and also discovered Chad Lake?
Who was one of the first Presbyterian Scotland explorers who was the first European to reach the trading post of Timbuktu, deep in the African interior?
Who was the most famous of the explorers of Africa from Scotland?
David Livingstone became the first European to see the "smoke that thunders," the crashing waters of ________________, Africa's largest waterfall.
When the news of Livingstone's explorations stopped abruptly, an American newspaper dispatched a young reporter, ______________, to find the famous missionary.
Who was the great British philanthropist who helped many former slaves to colonize Freetown in Sierra Leone?
Granville Sharp helped many former slaves to colonize _____________ in Sierra Leone and two Christian schools were established there for the evangelization and education of Africans.
Who was the first black bishop of the Church of England?
Samuel Adjai Crowther
Who was the tribal chief of Bechuanaland during the time it was a British protectorate, was the son of a witch doctor, outlawed witchcraft and polygamy, and the liquor and slave trades?
Missionaries were active in _____________, the most unique of all the African states.
Liberia, with its capital at ____________, became the first independent African republic in 1847.
Who were the first two Christian missionaries to Liberia, who were African American ministers from the United States?
Who was perhaps the most famous Liberian evangelist who began preaching along the Ivory Coast in 1913, when he was 60 years old?
The people in the powerful black African tribes called themselves:
What were the colonists who farmed and raised cattle called, and is the Dutch word for farmer?
Resenting the British takeover and desiring to govern themselves, the Boers packed up and left the Cape in 1835, beginning the:
Northeast of the Cape Colony, the Boers established what two new republics?
Transvaal, and Orange Free State
Who was the British prime minister of the Cape Colony, who began antagonizing the Boer republics by inciting the Uitlanders to rebellion as part of a scheme to potentially unite much of Africa under British rule?
The already weak relationship between the British and the Boer colonies collapsed entirely and the ___________ erupted in 1899.
At first, the Boers were successful in the Boer war; under the determined leadership ______________, president of Transvaal, and _____________, a daring Afrikaner general.
Paul Kruger (president),
Louis Botha (general)
In what year did the Boers and the British join together to form the Union of South Africa?
In 1910, the Boers and the British joined together to form the __________________, a dominion with a representative government in the tradition of Great Britain.
Union of South Africa
Britain had a strong interest in Egypt because of the _______________ (completed in 1869), which connects the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea; trade ships from India and the Far East use it as a short cut to Europe.
Captain Cook explored _______________, a group of islands southeast of Australia.
What were the original inhabitants of the land of Australia called?
What was the event that increased Australia's population by 800%?
Australian Gold Rush
In what year did Australia become an independent commonwealth with its own parliamentary government?
What were the natives of New Zealand called?
In what year did New Zealand become independent with a parliamentary of her own?
By the 1920s, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand had become independent members of the __________________, an association of nations acknowledging the British monarch as their symbolic head.
British Commonwealth of Nations
In 1800, Parliament passed the ____________, which finally and officially joined England and Ireland.
Act of Union
What act was passed by Sir Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, which allowed Irish Catholics to vote and sit in Parliament?
Catholic Emancipation Act
Ireland's grievances against England became more acute following the terrible _______________ of 1840s, during which an estimated one million Irishmen died of starvation and over a million emigrated to the United States.
In the 20th century, the British Parliament finally consented to grant Ireland home rule, but six predominately Protestant counties of the northeastern Irish province of _____________ were not interested in obtaining it.
In 1921 Ireland was partitioned; 26 of Ireland's counties became the ________________, with membership in the British Commonwealth of a Nations, while the six counties of northeast Ulster remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Irish Free State
In what year did the Irish Free State become completely independent of the Commonwealth of Nations, and established the Republic of Ireland?
In 1949, the Irish Free State became completely independent of the Commonwealth of Nations, and established the:
Republic of Ireland
The six Protestant counties of Ulster are known as:
Who was the son of the good Queen Victoria who, who ascended to the throne in 1901, but did not share his mother's resolution to be "good"?
Who was the British naturalist who published "On the Origin of Species," in 1859, in which he proposed that life on earth "evolved" over time through a process of natural selection?
What is the philosophy that proposes that life on earth had "evolved" over time through a process of natural selection, which replaced God the Creator with time, natural processes, and chance?
Evolution or Darwinism
Who coined the term agnostic, whose ungodly ideas led to the acceptance of materialism?
Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley coined the term _______________ to describe one who believes that the existence of God and anything but material reality cannot be proved by human reasoning and thus is not an important area of human inquiry.
What idea came about because of the ungodly ideas of Darwin and Huxley that states that matter is the only reality and that everything in the world, including thought, will, feeling, must be explained in terms of matter?
What is the idea that government should own or at least control a nation's economy (including its businesses, factories, and other means of production) in order to provide for the needs of the people?
What were the people who believed that the goal of life is "the greatest happiness of the greatest number" called?
What was the socialist organization in Britain that wanted benevolent social reform but did not want to take the Bible literally?
What was the organization of laborers who demanded, among other things, immediate voting rights for all men?
Who was the most famous Christian Socialist, and was a popularizer of Darwinism who wrote sermons pamphlets and novels to support the Chartist movement?
What society was founded in 1884 by George Bernard Shaw, and Sydney and Beatrice Webb and taught that socialism should be achieved gradually through a series of "reforms"including pensions and food subsidies from the government, the elimination of private property, and a government-imposed minimum wage?
What three socialist advocates and Fabians founded the Fabian society?
Sidney and Beatrice Webb
What is the false philosophy where church leaders became more concerned with attacking social injustices and working toward establishing total democracy been with bringing people to personal salvation through Jesus Christ?
What is a desire to break loose from established government's and rule themselves based on what is seen as natural boundaries of national origin?
What is a political disorder and violence, or a lack of any government called?
Who are the five great English poet who dominated the Romantic Period?
Who are the famous French romanticists of the Romantic Period?
What is the false idea that God is not separate from nature but the nature is God?
Who was the German philosopher who said that the senses and mind are the sole avenues of knowledge and that man cannot know God or the soul by either of these avenues, and created the philosophy of idealism?
What is the philosophy created by Immanuel Kant, the bases thought and action on the way one wishes things were rather than on reality?
Cancel idealism opened the door to the dangerous philosophy of ____________, The idea that truth is relative and dependent on man's reasoning.
Who was the German philosopher who introduced dialectic thinking?
G. W. F. Hegel
What is the idea created by G. W. F. Hegel that states that one fact or idea works against a contradictory fact to create "new fact"?
Who was the German theologian who was one of the most influential theologians of the 19th-century Protestantism, was called the Father of Theological Liberalism, and created a "theology of feeling" which emphasized one's feeling of dependence rather than faith in God's word?
What was one product of the relativism and religious liberalism of the 19th century which questioned in the guise of scholarship the inspiration, authority, texts, and meaning of the Bible?
What are religious liberals called?
What Congress was the leading diplomats of Europe meeting to redraw the map of Europe and try to create a political solution to your spiritual problems, and lasted eight months?
The Congress of Vienna
Who were the key diplomats of the Congress of Vienna, and where were they from?
Czar Alexander I (Russia),
Lord Castlereagh (Great Britain),
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (France),
Prince von Matternich (Austria)
Who was called the "Prince of Diplomats," and so dominated the decision-making at Vienna at the first half of the 19th century is often called after him?
Prince von Metternich
Instead ofEurope again becoming hundreds of tiny states, it was to remain as Napoleon had reconstituted it, as 38 larger states organized into the:
Out of the Congress of Vienna grew a ________________ Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain. The stated purpose of this was to prevent future aggression in Europe.
In 1818, France joins the "Quadruple Alliance," and it became the:
At the insistence of Czar Alexander the first of Russia, most of the nations represented at the Congress of Vienna joined another alliance known as the _________________ to follow policy based on "holy religion, namely the precepts of justice, Christian charity and peace."
The nations of the Quintuple Alliance formed the________________, or the Concert of Europe, to meet periodically and to work together to put down any rumblings of revolution.
What to Latin American groups were upset that they had no voice in government and little social standing, and worked toward independence from Spain?
What two men lead to Chilean armies to independence in 1818?
José de San Martín,
Who was the wealthy Venezuelan Creole, known as "The Liberator," and won independence for Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela?
In what year did President Monroe issue a statement which became known as the Munroe doctrine, which warned European powers that intervention in Latin America would be looked upon by the United States as an unfriendly act?
What was the statement by the American president that warned the European powers that intervention in Latin America would be looked upon by the United States as an unfriendly act?
In 1827, England, Russia, and France for a major naval battle against the Turks at Navarino in the Mediterranean, and in 1829, they forced Turkey to except the ________________, by which the Turks agreed to submit to the terms offered by England, France, and Russia.
Treaty of Adrianople
Who was the brother and successor of Louis XVI, who Maintained peace within France but really pleased no one, and during his rule, the tradition of a multiparty system grew?
Who succeeded his brother, Louis XVII, who dissolved the legislature, and as result began the July Revolution?
What happened when the citizens of Paris revolted against the action of Charles X dissolving the legislature, forcing Charles to flee to England?
When Charles X was forced to flee from France to England during the July Revolution, who became the new king?
Belgium declared their independence in 1830 and appointed ____________, the uncle of Britain's Queen Victoria, as their king.
The people of France wanted a republic, and also a strong leader. They chose _______________, who considered himself, rather than the legislature, to be the direct representative of the people, and dissolved the legislature, and was also the nephew of late Napoleon Bonaparte.
In 1852, Louis Napoleon followed up dissolving the legislature by declaring the Second Empire and declaring himself ________________, of France.
Emperor Napoleon III
In 1863, while the United States was involved in its own civil war, Napoleon of France supplied troops to support ________________ of Austria in a takeover of Mexico, but were forced out by the United States when the Civil War was over.
After being imprisoned and exiled for his involvement in a series of revolts, ________________ returned to Italy in 1831 to organize Young Italy.
What was the secret society organized by Giuseppe Mazzini that aimed at insurrection in Italy and ultimately unification through violence?
Who was the prime minister of Sardinia who worked toward unification through diplomatic means, and under his leadership, Sardinia became the standard-bearer of Italian nationalism?
Who came under the influence of Mazzini and joined Young Italy as a young man, and, after gaining experience as a guerilla leader in South America, he returned to Italy to organize a parliamentary group of revolutionists known as the Red Shirts?
What was the parliamentary group of revolutionists organized by Giuseppe Garibaldi?
Italy's first parliament met in 1861 to proclaim ________________ of Sardinia the first king of a united Italy.
Victor Emmanuel II
Prussia took the lead in German unification under the direction of ________________, the chancellor of Prussia, who convinced Austria to join Prussia in a war against Denmark in 1864.
Otto von Bismarck
In 1864, Otto von Bismarck convinced Austria to join Prussia in a war against Denmark, to take from Denmark what the two duchies which had been claimed by both Denmark and the German Confederation?
Schleswig and Holstein
As the next step in his plan for German unification, Otto von Bismarck promoted the outbreak of the ____________________, because Bismarck was convinced that a war against France would provoke feelings of nationalism that would unite the southern German states under Prussia.
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
What were the years if the Franco-Prussian War?
In January 1871, ______________ of Prussia was declared emperor of a United Germany.
What was the lower chamber that was further weakened by the presence of no less than six political parties, and all adult German males could vote for members of it?
Who was the emperor of Germany who dismissed Otto von Bismarck to take foreign matters into his own hands in 1809, initiated a new race for colonies, and began to build a powerful navy to challenge British naval supremacy?
Between 1900 and 1914, ________________, Wilhem II's state secretary for naval affairs, organized the Navy League and set out to build up German sea power.
Admiral von Tirpitz
In 1867, the Austrian Empire became the Austro-Hungarian empire, or the _________________, where each country has its own official language, it's own flag, and it's own Parliament; but financial affairs, defense, and foreign affairs were under officers common to both countries.
A new constitution made the Habsburg ruler, __________________, both the king of Hungary and the Emperor of Austria, when the country had its own official language, it's own flag, and it's own Parliament.
Francis Joseph I
What Marxist come you propose to forcibly establish a more "democratic" system of government in the style of the first French Revolution?
After France was isolated from the mainstream of European balance-of-power politics, they entered into the ____________ with Russian in 1894.
What reconciled the differences between France and Great Britain in 1904?
What sealed the alliance among Britain, France, and Russia in 1907?
Who was the Frenchman who advocated democratic socialism, and originated the socialist aphorism, "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs"?