Chapter 22 - Lymphatic System & Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 - Lymphatic System & Immunity Deck (42):
1

Immunity/Resistance 

ability to ward off damage or disease

2

(2) types of immunity

Innate - non specific

1st/2nd line of defense

Adaptive - specific recognition of invaders 

3

Lymphatic system

lymph, lymphatic vessels, structures & organs containing lymphatic tissue & red bone marrow 

4

Functions of Lymphatic system

drain excess interstitial fluid

transport dietary lipids

carry out immune responses

5

Lymphatic vessels begin as lymphatic ____ 

capillaries - closed at one end

6

Lymphatic capillaries unite to form large lymphatic ____ 

vessels - resemble veins in structure but thinner walls & more valves

7

Lymphatic: Capillaries → vessels → ???

passes through lymph nodes

8

Lymph nodes

 Encapsulated organs with masses and B and T cells 

 

9

Lymphatic capillaries 

 

larger diameter than blood capillaries

unique one-way structure

permit intersitial fluid to flow in but not out

anchoring filaments pull opening wider when interstitial fluid accumulates

10

Lacteals

specialized lymphatic capillaries in small intestine that carry dietary lipids into vessels & then blood

11

Chyle

lymph with lipids 

12

Vessels exit lymph nodes to form lymph ___ 

 

trunks

 

 

13

Principal lymph trunks are...? (5) 

lumbar

intestinal

bronchomediastinal

subclavian

jugular

 

14

Lymph passes from lymph trunks into (2) main channels before draining into...

thoracic & right lymphatic ducts 

venous blood

15

Most components of blood plasms filter freely though capillary walls to form interstitial fluid but more fluid filters out of blood capillaries than returns to them by ...`

 

reabsorption

16

excess filtered fluid drains into?

lymphatic vessels & becomes lymph

17

lymph

interstitial fliud in lymphatic vessels 

18

Important function of lymphatic vessels

 

to return lost plasma proteins to blood stream

19

(2) pumps aiding venous return also used maintain flow of lymph

1) skeletal muscle pump

2) respiratory

20

Lymphatic tissue & organs 

(2) groups based on function

1) primary lymphatic organs

2) secondary lymphatic organs

21

primary lymphatic organs

sites where stem cells divide and become immunocompetent

- red bone marrow & thymus

22

Secondary lymphatic organs

 where most immune response occurs

lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules

23

Thymus

in mediastinum between sternum & aorta

- 2 lobes seperated by capsule but held close by connective tissue

trabeculae (extensions of capsule) divide each lobe into lobules

- outer cortex & inner medulla

24

Outer cortex of Thymus

composed of many T cells which came from red bone marrow 

Dendritic cells derived from monocytes assist in T cell maturation

specialized epithelial cells assist in T cell maturation

macrophages clear out dead cells

25

Medulla

scattered, nore mature T cells 

epithelial, dendritic cells & macrophages

26

Lymph nodes

located?

~600 scattered throughout body

located along lymphatic vessels

STROMA: structural framework

covered by capsule that has trabeculae which divides nodes into compartments

reticular fibers & fibroblasts internal to capsule 

PARENCHYMA: functioning part

divided into cortex (inner + outer)  & medulla 

27

Parenchyma of Lymph Node

Outer cortex - aggregates of B cells (lymphatic nodules/follicles)
– site of plasma cell and memory B cell formation 

Inner cortex - mainly T cells & dendritic cells

Medulla - B cells, macrophages, antibody producing plasma cells from cortex

 

28

Flow of Lymph - one direction

enters through afferent lymphatic vessels → subscapular sinus → traneculae sinus → medullary sinus → efferent lymphatic vessels 

29

Lymph nodes function as ___

filter 

foreign substances trapped by reticular fibers & destroyed by macrophages

30

Spleen

largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in body

31

Spleen

consists of?

Stroma 

Parenchyma 

32

Parenchyma of spleen

consists of (2) different kinds of tissue

White pulp - lymphatic tissue (lymphocytes and 
macrophages) arranged around central arteries (branches of splenic artery)

- B & T cells carry out immune function

Red pulp - blood-filled venous sinuses splenic cords  (RBCs, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells & granulocytes

 

33

Within red pulp, spleen performs (3) functions

1) removal of ruptured RBCs by macrophages

2) storage of platelets

3) hemopoiesis - production of blood cells

34

Lymphatic nodules

not surrounded by capsule 

 Scattered throughout lamina propria of mucous membranes lining GI, urinary, reproductive tract (Mucosa-associated Lymphatic tissue - MALT) 

small & solitary

larger - Tonsils, Peyers patches & appendix

35

Innate Immunity 

first line of defenses?

provides...

: Skin and mucous membranes

both physical & chemical barriers

36

Innate Immunity - Physical barriers

epidermis

mucous membranes

nose hairs 

cilia of upper respiratory tract 

 

37

Innate Immunity - Fluids

Lacrimal apparatus of eye

Saliva

Urine

Vaginal secretions, defecation & vomiting

38

Innate Immunity - chemicals

sebaceous (oil) glands secrete sebum

perspiration, gastric juice & vaginal secretions - (all acidic)

39

Innate Immunity - 2nd line of defense?

Internal defenses

40

Innate Immunity - Antimicrobial substances

Interferons  - produced by lymphocytes, macrophages & fibroblasts 

complement system - proteins in blood plasma & PMs enhance immune rxns

Iron-binding proteins - inhibit bacteria growth by reducing available iron

Antimicrobial Proteins (AMPs) - attract dendritic & mast cells that participate in immune responses

41

Innate Immunity

- Natural Killer (NK) cells

Lymphocyte but not a B or T cell

- can kill variety of infected bodies & certain tumour cells

- attack any cell displaying abnormal plasma membrane proteins

release perforin or granzymes 

42

Innate Immunity - phagocytes 

 

Neutrophils & macrophages 

migrate to infected area

(5) steps of phagocytosis

- chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing